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X-Ray Techniques for Aerosol Sulfur Baseline Assessment Along an Urban Freeway

Akselsson, Roland LU ; Hardy, Ken A; Desaedeler, Georges G; Winchester, John W; Berg, Walter W; Vandeer Wood, Timothy B; Nelson, J William; Spiller, L L and Wilson, W E (1976) In Advances in X-Ray Analysis 19. p.415-425
Abstract
Atmospheric aerosol particles have been sampled near a Los Angeles freeway and analyzed by proton-induced X-ray emission, PIXE, as a sulfur baseline study in September 1974 before 1975-model automobiles, equipped with catalytic emission control devices, appeared in large numbers. The sampling plan was optimized according to the requirements of X-ray analysis techniques, fluctuations in air flow across the freeway, and the time and particle size resolution of the aerosol sampling equipment. During five selected two-hour intervals with cross wind conditions, particles were collected as a function of size by six cascade impactors operating simultaneously on three towers at 2 and 7 meters above road level 35 meters upwind and 35 meters... (More)
Atmospheric aerosol particles have been sampled near a Los Angeles freeway and analyzed by proton-induced X-ray emission, PIXE, as a sulfur baseline study in September 1974 before 1975-model automobiles, equipped with catalytic emission control devices, appeared in large numbers. The sampling plan was optimized according to the requirements of X-ray analysis techniques, fluctuations in air flow across the freeway, and the time and particle size resolution of the aerosol sampling equipment. During five selected two-hour intervals with cross wind conditions, particles were collected as a function of size by six cascade impactors operating simultaneously on three towers at 2 and 7 meters above road level 35 meters upwind and 35 meters downwind of the traffic lanes. Particles as a function of time were sampled continuously, for the 100-hour duration of the experiment, from the tree 7-meter heights using time series streaker filter samplers with two-hour time resolution. Precise analysis of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Br, and Pb established relationships which permit estimates to be made of future increases in particulate sulfur as a consequence of increased sulfate emissions from catalytic automobiles (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
urban aerosol, PIXE, particle size fraction, elemental composition, time resolution
in
Advances in X-Ray Analysis
volume
19
pages
415 - 425
publisher
Plenum Press
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
15c7da2a-2cb3-43e5-97df-0aecd206e64b (old id 2154178)
date added to LUP
2011-09-05 15:05:01
date last changed
2016-04-16 07:16:09
@article{15c7da2a-2cb3-43e5-97df-0aecd206e64b,
  abstract     = {Atmospheric aerosol particles have been sampled near a Los Angeles freeway and analyzed by proton-induced X-ray emission, PIXE, as a sulfur baseline study in September 1974 before 1975-model automobiles, equipped with catalytic emission control devices, appeared in large numbers. The sampling plan was optimized according to the requirements of X-ray analysis techniques, fluctuations in air flow across the freeway, and the time and particle size resolution of the aerosol sampling equipment. During five selected two-hour intervals with cross wind conditions, particles were collected as a function of size by six cascade impactors operating simultaneously on three towers at 2 and 7 meters above road level 35 meters upwind and 35 meters downwind of the traffic lanes. Particles as a function of time were sampled continuously, for the 100-hour duration of the experiment, from the tree 7-meter heights using time series streaker filter samplers with two-hour time resolution. Precise analysis of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Br, and Pb established relationships which permit estimates to be made of future increases in particulate sulfur as a consequence of increased sulfate emissions from catalytic automobiles},
  author       = {Akselsson, Roland and Hardy, Ken A and Desaedeler, Georges G and Winchester, John W and Berg, Walter W and Vandeer Wood, Timothy B and Nelson, J William and Spiller, L L and Wilson, W E},
  keyword      = {urban aerosol,PIXE,particle size fraction,elemental composition,time resolution},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {415--425},
  publisher    = {Plenum Press},
  series       = {Advances in X-Ray Analysis},
  title        = {X-Ray Techniques for Aerosol Sulfur Baseline Assessment Along an Urban Freeway},
  volume       = {19},
  year         = {1976},
}