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Body image in relation to nutritional status in adults from the Basque Country, Spain

Ibáñez-Zamacona, María Eugenia ; Poveda, Alaitz LU and Rebato, Esther (2020) In Journal of Biosocial Science 52(2). p.272-285
Abstract

The aim of this research was to analyse variation in body image perception and satisfaction by age, sex and nutritional status in an adult sample from the Basque Country, Spain. A case-control study was performed for 227 women and 178 men aged 18-70 years. Stunkard's silhouettes were used to evaluate Current Body Image (CBI) and Ideal Body Image (IBI), as well as dissatisfaction and inconsistency scores. Nutritional status was assessed following the WHO criteria for BMI in an adult population. The sample was divided into four groups based on sex and age (early adulthood <45 years, and middle/older adulthood ≥45 years). The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to evaluate sex and age differences, and the Gamma coefficient to assess the... (More)

The aim of this research was to analyse variation in body image perception and satisfaction by age, sex and nutritional status in an adult sample from the Basque Country, Spain. A case-control study was performed for 227 women and 178 men aged 18-70 years. Stunkard's silhouettes were used to evaluate Current Body Image (CBI) and Ideal Body Image (IBI), as well as dissatisfaction and inconsistency scores. Nutritional status was assessed following the WHO criteria for BMI in an adult population. The sample was divided into four groups based on sex and age (early adulthood <45 years, and middle/older adulthood ≥45 years). The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to evaluate sex and age differences, and the Gamma coefficient to assess the association between body image variables and nutritional status. Significant age differences in CBI (p<0.05) and sex differences in IBI (p<0.001) were detected. Both variables showed a positive association with BMI (p<0.01), which indicates that BMI is a biological characteristic related to body image satisfaction and influences participants' perception of themselves. Dissatisfaction scores showed that both sex and age differences (p<0.05) were negatively associated with BMI (p<0.001). Only participants ≥45 years presented sex differences in inconsistency scores (p<0.05); this variable was associated with BMI in women (p<0.01). Preferences in body image showed sexual dimorphism, with women preferring thinner bodies than men - a pattern observed in many Western populations - linked in part to sociocultural pressures. Women were more dissatisfied with their bodies than men; a higher dissatisfaction was observed in older relative to younger participants. The results confirm the association between nutritional status and body size perception and satisfaction, but also the relationship between nutritional status and the reliability with which women can classify themselves; in men, this relationship was not as clear.

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author
; and
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Body Image, Obesity
in
Journal of Biosocial Science
volume
52
issue
2
pages
14 pages
publisher
Cambridge University Press
external identifiers
  • pmid:31339090
  • scopus:85069885567
ISSN
0021-9320
DOI
10.1017/S0021932019000439
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
217bd791-5cd8-40a6-a39d-92bbe8c566e0
date added to LUP
2019-08-22 15:23:18
date last changed
2020-10-27 01:48:21
@article{217bd791-5cd8-40a6-a39d-92bbe8c566e0,
  abstract     = {<p>The aim of this research was to analyse variation in body image perception and satisfaction by age, sex and nutritional status in an adult sample from the Basque Country, Spain. A case-control study was performed for 227 women and 178 men aged 18-70 years. Stunkard's silhouettes were used to evaluate Current Body Image (CBI) and Ideal Body Image (IBI), as well as dissatisfaction and inconsistency scores. Nutritional status was assessed following the WHO criteria for BMI in an adult population. The sample was divided into four groups based on sex and age (early adulthood &lt;45 years, and middle/older adulthood ≥45 years). The Mann-Whitney U test was employed to evaluate sex and age differences, and the Gamma coefficient to assess the association between body image variables and nutritional status. Significant age differences in CBI (p&lt;0.05) and sex differences in IBI (p&lt;0.001) were detected. Both variables showed a positive association with BMI (p&lt;0.01), which indicates that BMI is a biological characteristic related to body image satisfaction and influences participants' perception of themselves. Dissatisfaction scores showed that both sex and age differences (p&lt;0.05) were negatively associated with BMI (p&lt;0.001). Only participants ≥45 years presented sex differences in inconsistency scores (p&lt;0.05); this variable was associated with BMI in women (p&lt;0.01). Preferences in body image showed sexual dimorphism, with women preferring thinner bodies than men - a pattern observed in many Western populations - linked in part to sociocultural pressures. Women were more dissatisfied with their bodies than men; a higher dissatisfaction was observed in older relative to younger participants. The results confirm the association between nutritional status and body size perception and satisfaction, but also the relationship between nutritional status and the reliability with which women can classify themselves; in men, this relationship was not as clear.</p>},
  author       = {Ibáñez-Zamacona, María Eugenia and Poveda, Alaitz and Rebato, Esther},
  issn         = {0021-9320},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {272--285},
  publisher    = {Cambridge University Press},
  series       = {Journal of Biosocial Science},
  title        = {Body image in relation to nutritional status in adults from the Basque Country, Spain},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932019000439},
  doi          = {10.1017/S0021932019000439},
  volume       = {52},
  year         = {2020},
}