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Surrogate fuels for premixed combustion in compression ignition engines

Kalghatgi, G. T.; Hildingsson, Leif LU ; Harrison, A. J. and Johansson, Bengt LU (2011) In International Journal of Engine Research 12(5). p.452-465
Abstract
Simple surrogate fuels are needed to model practical fuels, which are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. The surrogate fuel should match the combustion and emissions behaviour of the target fuel as much as possible. This paper presents experimental results using a wide range of fuels in both the gasoline and diesel auto-ignition range, but of different volatilities and compositions, in a single cylinder diesel engine. Premixed combustion in a compression ignition engine is defined, in this paper, to occur when the injection event is clearly separated from the combustion and the engine-out smoke is very low - below 0.05 FSN (filter smoke number). Under such circumstances, if the combustion phasing is matched for two fuels at a given... (More)
Simple surrogate fuels are needed to model practical fuels, which are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. The surrogate fuel should match the combustion and emissions behaviour of the target fuel as much as possible. This paper presents experimental results using a wide range of fuels in both the gasoline and diesel auto-ignition range, but of different volatilities and compositions, in a single cylinder diesel engine. Premixed combustion in a compression ignition engine is defined, in this paper, to occur when the injection event is clearly separated from the combustion and the engine-out smoke is very low - below 0.05 FSN (filter smoke number). Under such circumstances, if the combustion phasing is matched for two fuels at a given operating condition and injection timing, the emissions are also comparable regardless of the differences in composition and volatility. For the experimental conditions considered, combustion phasing at a given operating condition and injection timing depends only on the octane index (OI), OI = (1-K)RON + KMON, where RON and MON are research and motor octane numbers and K is an empirical constant that depends on operating conditions. A mixture of iso-octane, n-heptane and toluene can be found to match the RON and MON of any practical gasoline and will be a very good surrogate for the gasoline since it will have the same OI. If the compression ratio is greater than 14, practical diesel fuels, with DCN (derived cetane number) between 40 and 60, will have comparable ignition delays to n-heptane, which is an adequate surrogate for such fuels. However, premixed combustion can be attained only at much lower loads at a given speed with diesel fuels compared to gasolines. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
compression ignition, diesel engine, premixed combustion, low-NOx, low-smoke, octane index, surrogate fuels
in
International Journal of Engine Research
volume
12
issue
5
pages
452 - 465
publisher
Professional Engineering Publishing
external identifiers
  • wos:000295693000003
  • scopus:80054828457
ISSN
1468-0874
DOI
10.1177/1468087411409307
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
2f49483c-ff34-43da-9d68-cd3040ec6708 (old id 2212750)
date added to LUP
2011-11-23 13:41:24
date last changed
2017-07-23 04:12:11
@article{2f49483c-ff34-43da-9d68-cd3040ec6708,
  abstract     = {Simple surrogate fuels are needed to model practical fuels, which are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. The surrogate fuel should match the combustion and emissions behaviour of the target fuel as much as possible. This paper presents experimental results using a wide range of fuels in both the gasoline and diesel auto-ignition range, but of different volatilities and compositions, in a single cylinder diesel engine. Premixed combustion in a compression ignition engine is defined, in this paper, to occur when the injection event is clearly separated from the combustion and the engine-out smoke is very low - below 0.05 FSN (filter smoke number). Under such circumstances, if the combustion phasing is matched for two fuels at a given operating condition and injection timing, the emissions are also comparable regardless of the differences in composition and volatility. For the experimental conditions considered, combustion phasing at a given operating condition and injection timing depends only on the octane index (OI), OI = (1-K)RON + KMON, where RON and MON are research and motor octane numbers and K is an empirical constant that depends on operating conditions. A mixture of iso-octane, n-heptane and toluene can be found to match the RON and MON of any practical gasoline and will be a very good surrogate for the gasoline since it will have the same OI. If the compression ratio is greater than 14, practical diesel fuels, with DCN (derived cetane number) between 40 and 60, will have comparable ignition delays to n-heptane, which is an adequate surrogate for such fuels. However, premixed combustion can be attained only at much lower loads at a given speed with diesel fuels compared to gasolines.},
  author       = {Kalghatgi, G. T. and Hildingsson, Leif and Harrison, A. J. and Johansson, Bengt},
  issn         = {1468-0874},
  keyword      = {compression ignition,diesel engine,premixed combustion,low-NOx,low-smoke,octane index,surrogate fuels},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {452--465},
  publisher    = {Professional Engineering Publishing},
  series       = {International Journal of Engine Research},
  title        = {Surrogate fuels for premixed combustion in compression ignition engines},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468087411409307},
  volume       = {12},
  year         = {2011},
}