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Fight and flight in dinoflagellates? Kinetics of simultaneous grazer-induced responses in Alexandrium tamarense

Selander, Erik; Fagerberg, Tony LU ; Wohlrab, Sylke and Pavia, Henrik (2012) In Limnology and Oceanography 57(1). p.58-64
Abstract
We monitored the kinetics of grazer-induced responses in the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Chemical cues from each of three calanoid copepods (Calanus sp., Centropages typicus, and Acartia tonsa) induced increased toxicity and suppressed chain formation in A. tamarense. Both chemical and morphological responses augmented over 3 d. Toxicity subsequently averaged 299% higher than controls, and average biovolume 24% lower than controls because of suppression of chain formation in grazed treatments. Grazer-induced toxicity returned to control levels after approximately 11 d, equivalent to five cell divisions, and average biovolume returned to control levels within 1 to 4 d (one to two cell divisions). This suggests that... (More)
We monitored the kinetics of grazer-induced responses in the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Chemical cues from each of three calanoid copepods (Calanus sp., Centropages typicus, and Acartia tonsa) induced increased toxicity and suppressed chain formation in A. tamarense. Both chemical and morphological responses augmented over 3 d. Toxicity subsequently averaged 299% higher than controls, and average biovolume 24% lower than controls because of suppression of chain formation in grazed treatments. Grazer-induced toxicity returned to control levels after approximately 11 d, equivalent to five cell divisions, and average biovolume returned to control levels within 1 to 4 d (one to two cell divisions). This suggests that dinoflagellates simultaneously reduce grazer encounter rates and increase chemical defense levels in the presence of copepod grazers. Media replacement experiments showed that the inducing cue(s) attenuate rapidly in seawater, which allows A. tamarense to adjust resource allocation to grazer-induced responses to follow fluctuations in grazer density. Grazer-induced responses, however, develop too slowly to be accounted for in short-term grazing experiments with laboratory cultures. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Limnology and Oceanography
volume
57
issue
1
pages
58 - 64
publisher
ASLO
external identifiers
  • wos:000298321300005
  • scopus:81355150242
ISSN
1939-5590
DOI
10.4319/lo.2012.57.1.0058
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
5f66768b-7af4-400f-ab11-55fcb2738fe2 (old id 2278892)
date added to LUP
2012-01-11 11:20:00
date last changed
2017-05-28 03:53:04
@article{5f66768b-7af4-400f-ab11-55fcb2738fe2,
  abstract     = {We monitored the kinetics of grazer-induced responses in the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Chemical cues from each of three calanoid copepods (Calanus sp., Centropages typicus, and Acartia tonsa) induced increased toxicity and suppressed chain formation in A. tamarense. Both chemical and morphological responses augmented over 3 d. Toxicity subsequently averaged 299% higher than controls, and average biovolume 24% lower than controls because of suppression of chain formation in grazed treatments. Grazer-induced toxicity returned to control levels after approximately 11 d, equivalent to five cell divisions, and average biovolume returned to control levels within 1 to 4 d (one to two cell divisions). This suggests that dinoflagellates simultaneously reduce grazer encounter rates and increase chemical defense levels in the presence of copepod grazers. Media replacement experiments showed that the inducing cue(s) attenuate rapidly in seawater, which allows A. tamarense to adjust resource allocation to grazer-induced responses to follow fluctuations in grazer density. Grazer-induced responses, however, develop too slowly to be accounted for in short-term grazing experiments with laboratory cultures.},
  author       = {Selander, Erik and Fagerberg, Tony and Wohlrab, Sylke and Pavia, Henrik},
  issn         = {1939-5590},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {58--64},
  publisher    = {ASLO},
  series       = {Limnology and Oceanography},
  title        = {Fight and flight in dinoflagellates? Kinetics of simultaneous grazer-induced responses in Alexandrium tamarense},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4319/lo.2012.57.1.0058},
  volume       = {57},
  year         = {2012},
}