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Association of hypogonadism with vitamin D status: the European Male Ageing Study

Lee, David M.; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Pye, Stephen R.; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Bouillon, Roger; O'Neill, Terence W.; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F. and Finn, Joseph D., et al. (2012) In European Journal of Endocrinology 166(1). p.77-85
Abstract
Objective: Interrelationships between hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis, hypogonadism, vitamin D and seasonality remain poorly defined. We investigated whether HPT axis hormones and hypogonadism are associated with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in men. Design and methods: Cross-sectional survey of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years in eight European centres. Testosterone (T), oestradiol (E(2)) and dihydrotestosterone were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; LH, FSH, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone by immunoassay. Free T was calculated from total T, SHBG and albumin. Gonadal status was categorised as eugonadal (normal T/LH), secondary... (More)
Objective: Interrelationships between hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis, hypogonadism, vitamin D and seasonality remain poorly defined. We investigated whether HPT axis hormones and hypogonadism are associated with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in men. Design and methods: Cross-sectional survey of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years in eight European centres. Testosterone (T), oestradiol (E(2)) and dihydrotestosterone were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; LH, FSH, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone by immunoassay. Free T was calculated from total T, SHBG and albumin. Gonadal status was categorised as eugonadal (normal T/LH), secondary (low T, low/normal LH), primary (low T, elevated LH) and compensated (normal T, elevated LH) hypogonadism. Associations of HPT axis hormones with 25(OH)D were examined using linear regression and hypogonadism with vitamin D using multinomial logistic regression. Results: In univariate analyses, free T levels were lower (P=0.02) and E(2) and LH levels were higher (P<0.05) in men with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <50 nmol/l). 25(OH)D was positively associated with total and free T and negatively with E(2) and LH in age- and centre-adjusted linear regressions. After adjusting for health and lifestyle factors, no significant associations were observed between 25(OH)D and individual hormones of the HPT axis. However, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with compensated (relative risk ratio (RRR)=1.52, P=0.03) and secondary hypogonadism (RRR=1.16, P=0.05). Seasonal variation was only observed for 25(OH)D (P<0.001). Conclusions: Secondary and compensated hypogonadism were associated with vitamin D deficiency and the clinical significance of this relationship warrants further investigation. (Less)
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European Journal of Endocrinology
volume
166
issue
1
pages
77 - 85
publisher
Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology
external identifiers
  • wos:000298347900012
  • scopus:84055193403
ISSN
1479-683X
DOI
10.1530/EJE-11-0743
language
English
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yes
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e12606a6-1193-41a4-a146-2669c91f1233 (old id 2333970)
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2012-02-01 07:41:39
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2017-11-19 03:19:00
@article{e12606a6-1193-41a4-a146-2669c91f1233,
  abstract     = {Objective: Interrelationships between hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis, hypogonadism, vitamin D and seasonality remain poorly defined. We investigated whether HPT axis hormones and hypogonadism are associated with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in men. Design and methods: Cross-sectional survey of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years in eight European centres. Testosterone (T), oestradiol (E(2)) and dihydrotestosterone were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; LH, FSH, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone by immunoassay. Free T was calculated from total T, SHBG and albumin. Gonadal status was categorised as eugonadal (normal T/LH), secondary (low T, low/normal LH), primary (low T, elevated LH) and compensated (normal T, elevated LH) hypogonadism. Associations of HPT axis hormones with 25(OH)D were examined using linear regression and hypogonadism with vitamin D using multinomial logistic regression. Results: In univariate analyses, free T levels were lower (P=0.02) and E(2) and LH levels were higher (P&lt;0.05) in men with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D &lt;50 nmol/l). 25(OH)D was positively associated with total and free T and negatively with E(2) and LH in age- and centre-adjusted linear regressions. After adjusting for health and lifestyle factors, no significant associations were observed between 25(OH)D and individual hormones of the HPT axis. However, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with compensated (relative risk ratio (RRR)=1.52, P=0.03) and secondary hypogonadism (RRR=1.16, P=0.05). Seasonal variation was only observed for 25(OH)D (P&lt;0.001). Conclusions: Secondary and compensated hypogonadism were associated with vitamin D deficiency and the clinical significance of this relationship warrants further investigation.},
  author       = {Lee, David M. and Tajar, Abdelouahid and Pye, Stephen R. and Boonen, Steven and Vanderschueren, Dirk and Bouillon, Roger and O'Neill, Terence W. and Bartfai, Gyorgy and Casanueva, Felipe F. and Finn, Joseph D. and Forti, Gianni and Giwercman, Aleksander and Han, Thang S. and Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T. and Kula, Krzysztof and Lean, Michael E. J. and Pendleton, Neil and Punab, Margus and Wu, Frederick C. W.},
  issn         = {1479-683X},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {77--85},
  publisher    = {Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology},
  series       = {European Journal of Endocrinology},
  title        = {Association of hypogonadism with vitamin D status: the European Male Ageing Study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-11-0743},
  volume       = {166},
  year         = {2012},
}