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Dokumenterat utanförskap - om skolbarn som inte når målen

Ingestad, Gunilla LU (2006)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen behandlar skolverksamheten i en svensk medelstor kommun under perioden 1996-2005 med fokus på de delar av verksamheten som handlar om stödåtgärder för elever med skolsvårigheter



Syftet med studien är att undersöka skolans bedömning av elevers skolsvårigheter i ett längre perspektiv, och innefattar bl.a. elevers subjektiva upplevelser och konsekvenser i skolans organisation och arbetssätt.



Den teoretiska utgångspunkten är G H Meads och E Goffmans interaktionistiska förklaringsmodeller, i vilka bl.a. kunskapsutveckling definieras som relationella processer. Motivation och upplevelse av mening är här centrala begrepp för förståelsen av individens... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen behandlar skolverksamheten i en svensk medelstor kommun under perioden 1996-2005 med fokus på de delar av verksamheten som handlar om stödåtgärder för elever med skolsvårigheter



Syftet med studien är att undersöka skolans bedömning av elevers skolsvårigheter i ett längre perspektiv, och innefattar bl.a. elevers subjektiva upplevelser och konsekvenser i skolans organisation och arbetssätt.



Den teoretiska utgångspunkten är G H Meads och E Goffmans interaktionistiska förklaringsmodeller, i vilka bl.a. kunskapsutveckling definieras som relationella processer. Motivation och upplevelse av mening är här centrala begrepp för förståelsen av individens kognitiva utveckling. Interaktionismen har fått stor aktualitet i debatten kring skolfrågor under de senare åren, bl.a. genom ett nyvaknat intresse för L Vygotskijs teorier, och nuvarande läroplan (Lpo 94) bygger på tanken om att det är i samspelet mellan individer utvecklingen av kunskap sker



Förklaringsmodeller och idéer om arbetssätt i skolan är många och ibland motstridiga, och val av metoder och åtgärder är därför sällan givna. Detta är särskilt påtagligt i de verksamheter som handlar om stödåtgärder. En central del av den teoretiska presentationen är frågor om perspektivtagande och motsättningar mellan olika perspektiv. Förekomsten av olika perspektiv har accentuerats i takt med att verksamheten breddats vad det gäller såväl omfattning som uppdrag. Skolverksamheten omfattar numera ungdomarnas hela uppväxttid och inte bara den traditionella ?skolåldern? från sjuårsåldern samtidigt som uppdraget har utvidgats i samband med en förändrad kunskapssyn. Begreppet skolsvårigheter har fått en vidare innebörd, och stödinsatser i skolan är i allt högre grad relaterade till sådana svårigheter som skolpersonal bedömer som beteende- eller sociala problem snarare än egentliga inlärningssvårigheter. Den förändrade innebörden av begreppet har fått konsekvenser för skolans uppdrag vad det gäller stödåtgärder. Skolans ökade ansvar för den enskildes kunskapsutveckling i kombination med den vidare synen på kunskap och stödinsatser har bidragit till en medikalisering, d.v.s. att ett ökat intresse för biologiska förklaringar till skolsvårigheter. Gränsen mellan skolans och andra organisationers verksamheter har blivit otydligare, vilket gör att relationer mellan professionella grupper kompliceras, liksom frågor om beslut och ansvar, och att skolans grundläggande professonalitet, den pedagogiska, riskerar att hamna i skymundan.



Det empiriska underlaget är en kombination av kvalitativa och kvantitativa data knutna till en enskild kommun. Utgångspunkt är en uppföljningsstudie av 77 obehöriga elever och deras prov- och betygsresultat från olika bedömningstillfällen under skoltiden, och studien kompletteras efterhand med statistik, verksamhetsdokument och intervjuer med elever och skolpersonal.



Studien visar att orsakerna bakom bristfälliga betyg är komplexa, liksom de processer som bedömning och betygsättning utgör. Trots ett ökat krav på kontinuerlig individuell uppföljning och åtgärdsplanering för elever som har bristfälliga kunskaper har andelen elever som bedöms ha skolsvårigheter och som slutar grundskolan med ofullständiga betyg ökat.



De påvisade variationerna över tid i betygs- och testresultat på individnivå tyder på att såväl bedömningar som effekter är föränderliga och svåra att förutsäga. Tydligare är det samband mellan betygsresultat och elevers socioekonomiska bakgrund som kan utläsas på skolnivå. Här har skillnaden mellan olika skolor ökat. Trots att skolans verksamhet, och framförallt den direkta stödverksamheten, är tänkt att vara kompensatorisk, d.v.s. kompensera för elevers olika villkor och på så sätt garantera social rättvisa, tycks istället en förstärkning av bakgrundsfaktorernas effekter ske.



Ett ensidigt fokus på individuell utveckling gör dessutom att betydelsen av sociala bakgrundsfaktorer och relationella dimensioner riskerar att skymmas. Bl.a. talar resultaten av intervjuerna för att faktorer som tillhörighet och omgivningens förväntningar har en stark inverkan på motivation och studieresultat.



Det dokumenterande och målstyrda arbetssättet har medfört att villkor definieras och gränsdragning skapats. Därigenom skapas också kriterier för tillhörighet och en gräns mellan "vi" och "dom", de godkända och de andra - ett utanförskap för de elever som inte når målen. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis examines school activity in a medium-sized Swedish municipality 1996?2005 focusing on the parts of the activity that deal with support measures for pupils with school difficulties.



The purpose of the study is to examine the assessment of pupils? school difficulties in a longer perspective, considering pupils? subjective experiences and consequences of the school's organisation and working methods.



The theoretical starting point is G. H. Mead's and E. Goffman's interactionist explanatory models in which knowledge development is defined as relational processes. Here, motivation and experience of meaning are central concepts for the understanding of an individual's cognitive development.... (More)
This thesis examines school activity in a medium-sized Swedish municipality 1996?2005 focusing on the parts of the activity that deal with support measures for pupils with school difficulties.



The purpose of the study is to examine the assessment of pupils? school difficulties in a longer perspective, considering pupils? subjective experiences and consequences of the school's organisation and working methods.



The theoretical starting point is G. H. Mead's and E. Goffman's interactionist explanatory models in which knowledge development is defined as relational processes. Here, motivation and experience of meaning are central concepts for the understanding of an individual's cognitive development. Interactionism has been one of the leading topics in the debate about school issues in the last few years due to a newly awakened interest in L Vygotskij's theories, and the current curriculum (Lpo 94) is based on the idea that it is in interaction between individuals that development of knowledge occurs.



There are many, sometimes contradictory, explanatory models and ideas on ways of working in school, so the choice of methods and measures is seldom straightforward. A central part of the theoretical presentation is questions on perspectives and conflicts between different perspectives. The occurence of different perspectives has become more pronounced while at the same time the activity has broadened when it comes to scope and task. School activity now covers the entire period of growing up and not just the traditional ?school age? from the age of seven, while the task has expanded in conjunction with a changed approach to knowledge. The concept of school difficulties has taken on a wider meaning, and remedial efforts in school are increasingly related to the difficulties that members of staff judge to be behavioural or social problems rather than actual learning difficulties. The altered implication of the concept has had consequences for the task of school in the matter of support measures. A school's increased responsibility for the individual's knowledge development combined with the wider view of knowledge and support efforts has contributed to a medicalization, i.e. an increased interest in biological explanations for school difficulties. The boundary between the activity of school and other organisations has become less clear, which means that relations between professional groups are complicated, as are matters of decision and responsibility, and school's fundamental profession, the pedagogic activity, runs the risk of being neglected.



The empirical basis is a combination of qualitative and quantitative data tied to an individual municipality, following 77 pupils who do not make the grade and results of tests and grades throughout the school years. The study also uses statistics, school documents and interviews with pupils and school personnel.



The study shows that the reasons behind insufficient grades are complex, as are the processes of assessment and grading. Despite greater insistence on continuous individual follow-up and planning of measures for pupils with inadequate knowledge, the proportion of pupils who are judged to have school difficulties and who leave compulsory school with incomplete grades has increased.



The variations that been found over time in grades and test results on an individual level indicate that both assessment and effects are variable and hard to predict. What is clearer is the connection between grades and the pupil's socio-economic background measured at school level. Here, the differences between schools have increased. In spite of the fact that school activity, and above all the immediate support activity, is thought to compensate for pupils? different conditions and thus guarantee social justice, a reinforcement of the effects of background factors seem to have occurred.



There is a risk that the importance of social background factors and relational dimensions is neglected due to a one-sided focus on individual development. The results of the interviews show that factors such as belonging and other people's expectations have a strong affect on motivation and study results.



The documented and goal-steered way of working has resulted in defining conditions and setting boundaries. In so doing we see criteria for belonging and a line between "us" and "them", those who pass and those who do not - a sense of exclusion for those pupils who do not make the grade. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Prof. Börjesson, Mats, Institutionen för Samhälls- och beteendevetenskap, Mälardalens högskola
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
medikalisering, relationellt perspektiv, interaktionism, utanförskap, motivation, skolsvårigheter, särskilt stöd, Sociology, Sociologi
pages
180 pages
publisher
Department of Sociology, Lund University
defense location
Sociologen, sal 4
defense date
2006-10-06 10:15
ISBN
91-7267-219-6
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
d3f36a1f-c3e0-440e-9f13-271f0691b268 (old id 25698)
date added to LUP
2007-06-05 08:16:41
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:10
@phdthesis{d3f36a1f-c3e0-440e-9f13-271f0691b268,
  abstract     = {This thesis examines school activity in a medium-sized Swedish municipality 1996?2005 focusing on the parts of the activity that deal with support measures for pupils with school difficulties.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The purpose of the study is to examine the assessment of pupils? school difficulties in a longer perspective, considering pupils? subjective experiences and consequences of the school's organisation and working methods.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The theoretical starting point is G. H. Mead's and E. Goffman's interactionist explanatory models in which knowledge development is defined as relational processes. Here, motivation and experience of meaning are central concepts for the understanding of an individual's cognitive development. Interactionism has been one of the leading topics in the debate about school issues in the last few years due to a newly awakened interest in L Vygotskij's theories, and the current curriculum (Lpo 94) is based on the idea that it is in interaction between individuals that development of knowledge occurs.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
There are many, sometimes contradictory, explanatory models and ideas on ways of working in school, so the choice of methods and measures is seldom straightforward. A central part of the theoretical presentation is questions on perspectives and conflicts between different perspectives. The occurence of different perspectives has become more pronounced while at the same time the activity has broadened when it comes to scope and task. School activity now covers the entire period of growing up and not just the traditional ?school age? from the age of seven, while the task has expanded in conjunction with a changed approach to knowledge. The concept of school difficulties has taken on a wider meaning, and remedial efforts in school are increasingly related to the difficulties that members of staff judge to be behavioural or social problems rather than actual learning difficulties. The altered implication of the concept has had consequences for the task of school in the matter of support measures. A school's increased responsibility for the individual's knowledge development combined with the wider view of knowledge and support efforts has contributed to a medicalization, i.e. an increased interest in biological explanations for school difficulties. The boundary between the activity of school and other organisations has become less clear, which means that relations between professional groups are complicated, as are matters of decision and responsibility, and school's fundamental profession, the pedagogic activity, runs the risk of being neglected.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The empirical basis is a combination of qualitative and quantitative data tied to an individual municipality, following 77 pupils who do not make the grade and results of tests and grades throughout the school years. The study also uses statistics, school documents and interviews with pupils and school personnel.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The study shows that the reasons behind insufficient grades are complex, as are the processes of assessment and grading. Despite greater insistence on continuous individual follow-up and planning of measures for pupils with inadequate knowledge, the proportion of pupils who are judged to have school difficulties and who leave compulsory school with incomplete grades has increased.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The variations that been found over time in grades and test results on an individual level indicate that both assessment and effects are variable and hard to predict. What is clearer is the connection between grades and the pupil's socio-economic background measured at school level. Here, the differences between schools have increased. In spite of the fact that school activity, and above all the immediate support activity, is thought to compensate for pupils? different conditions and thus guarantee social justice, a reinforcement of the effects of background factors seem to have occurred.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
There is a risk that the importance of social background factors and relational dimensions is neglected due to a one-sided focus on individual development. The results of the interviews show that factors such as belonging and other people's expectations have a strong affect on motivation and study results.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The documented and goal-steered way of working has resulted in defining conditions and setting boundaries. In so doing we see criteria for belonging and a line between "us" and "them", those who pass and those who do not - a sense of exclusion for those pupils who do not make the grade.},
  author       = {Ingestad, Gunilla},
  isbn         = {91-7267-219-6},
  keyword      = {medikalisering,relationellt perspektiv,interaktionism,utanförskap,motivation,skolsvårigheter,särskilt stöd,Sociology,Sociologi},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {180},
  publisher    = {Department of Sociology, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Dokumenterat utanförskap - om skolbarn som inte når målen},
  year         = {2006},
}