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Radiation balance of urban snow: a water management perspective

Semadeni Davies, Annette LU ; Lundberg, Angela and Bengtsson, Lars LU (2001) In Cold Region Science and Technology 33(1). p.59-76
Abstract
The radiation balance of urbanised catchments differs from their rural counterparts, with snowpacks experiencing either enhanced or decreased irradiance depending on snowpack location and condition. As snowmelt is largely driven by radiation inputs, changes to localised irradiance (and melt rates) have implications for urban runoff generation. Storm- and wastewater drainage systems in cold regions are currently dimensioned for rain according to practices developed for temperate climates. They are not designed to cope with wintry conditions, which can lead to surface flooding, hydraulic overloads and poor water quality at receiving waters.



Net allwave radiation measurements over snow made at the Swedish city of Luleå... (More)
The radiation balance of urbanised catchments differs from their rural counterparts, with snowpacks experiencing either enhanced or decreased irradiance depending on snowpack location and condition. As snowmelt is largely driven by radiation inputs, changes to localised irradiance (and melt rates) have implications for urban runoff generation. Storm- and wastewater drainage systems in cold regions are currently dimensioned for rain according to practices developed for temperate climates. They are not designed to cope with wintry conditions, which can lead to surface flooding, hydraulic overloads and poor water quality at receiving waters.



Net allwave radiation measurements over snow made at the Swedish city of Luleå during April 1997 and 1998 are presented. The 1997 measurements were made in the vicinity of a matt-black-painted metal building at Luleå University of Technology, whereas the 1998 measurements are from a specially constructed 3×6-m black plastic-clad wall built on an open field just outside the town. Black minimises multiple reflections between the snow and walls, while maximising absorption of shortwave radiation by walls. The data were compared to the outputs of an urban radiation model. The results show that urban structures significantly alter radiation over snow. The temperature of the south-facing walls translates to longwave enhancements in the order of 150 W m−2 for several metres from the walls on sunny days. Shaded snow near the north-facing wall showed a net allwave radiation loss of the same order of magnitude. Radiation inputs to snow are similar both to the north and south of walls when the sky is overcast. The need to include snowmelt energetics within design and management techniques is discussed in light of the results. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Cold Region Science and Technology
volume
33
issue
1
pages
59 - 76
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • Scopus:0035474166
DOI
10.1016/S0165-232X(01)00028-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
db7b3e92-eaad-4467-82a6-a980464e7663 (old id 2594950)
date added to LUP
2012-05-31 18:05:18
date last changed
2017-01-01 08:07:00
@article{db7b3e92-eaad-4467-82a6-a980464e7663,
  abstract     = {The radiation balance of urbanised catchments differs from their rural counterparts, with snowpacks experiencing either enhanced or decreased irradiance depending on snowpack location and condition. As snowmelt is largely driven by radiation inputs, changes to localised irradiance (and melt rates) have implications for urban runoff generation. Storm- and wastewater drainage systems in cold regions are currently dimensioned for rain according to practices developed for temperate climates. They are not designed to cope with wintry conditions, which can lead to surface flooding, hydraulic overloads and poor water quality at receiving waters.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Net allwave radiation measurements over snow made at the Swedish city of Luleå during April 1997 and 1998 are presented. The 1997 measurements were made in the vicinity of a matt-black-painted metal building at Luleå University of Technology, whereas the 1998 measurements are from a specially constructed 3×6-m black plastic-clad wall built on an open field just outside the town. Black minimises multiple reflections between the snow and walls, while maximising absorption of shortwave radiation by walls. The data were compared to the outputs of an urban radiation model. The results show that urban structures significantly alter radiation over snow. The temperature of the south-facing walls translates to longwave enhancements in the order of 150 W m−2 for several metres from the walls on sunny days. Shaded snow near the north-facing wall showed a net allwave radiation loss of the same order of magnitude. Radiation inputs to snow are similar both to the north and south of walls when the sky is overcast. The need to include snowmelt energetics within design and management techniques is discussed in light of the results.},
  author       = {Semadeni Davies, Annette and Lundberg, Angela and Bengtsson, Lars},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {59--76},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Cold Region Science and Technology},
  title        = {Radiation balance of urban snow: a water management perspective},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-232X(01)00028-3},
  volume       = {33},
  year         = {2001},
}