Advanced

Microbial dustiness and particle release of different biofuels

Madsen, AM; Martensson, L; Schneider, T and Larsson, Lennart LU (2004) In Annals of Occupational Hygiene 48(4). p.327-338
Abstract
Exposure to organic dust originating from biofuels can cause adverse health effects. In the present study we have assessed the dustiness in terms of microbial components and particles of various biofuels by using a rotating drum as a dust generator. Microbial components from straw, wood chips, wood pellets and wood briquettes were quantified by several methods. Excellent correllations (r greater than or equal to 0.85, P < 0.0001) were found: between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (as determined by 3-hydroxy fatty acid analysis) and endotoxin (as determined by a Limulus test), cultivable bacteria, total number of bacteria and muramic acid; between endotoxin and cultivable bacteria, total number of bacteria and muramic acid; between total... (More)
Exposure to organic dust originating from biofuels can cause adverse health effects. In the present study we have assessed the dustiness in terms of microbial components and particles of various biofuels by using a rotating drum as a dust generator. Microbial components from straw, wood chips, wood pellets and wood briquettes were quantified by several methods. Excellent correllations (r greater than or equal to 0.85, P < 0.0001) were found: between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (as determined by 3-hydroxy fatty acid analysis) and endotoxin (as determined by a Limulus test), cultivable bacteria, total number of bacteria and muramic acid; between endotoxin and cultivable bacteria, total number of bacteria and muramic acid; between total number of bacteria and muramic acid; between cultivable fungi and total number of fungi. Straw was dustier than the other biofuels in terms of actinomycetes, bacteria, muramic acid, endotoxin, LPS, particle mass and number of particles. One of the wood chips studied and the straws had comparatively high dustiness In terms of fungi, while both wood pellets and wood briquettes had comparatively low dustiness in terms of all microbial components. An initially high particle generation rate of straw and wood chips decreased over time whereas the particle generation rate of wood briquettes and wood pellets increased during a 5 min rotation period. Particles of non-microbial origin may be the determining factor for the health risk in handling briquettes and pellets. Straw dust contained significantly more microorganisms per particle than did wood chip dust, probably because bacteria were most abundant in straw dust. The concentrations of endotoxin and fungi were high in wood and straw dust; dust from one of the straws contained 3610 EU/mg and dust from one of the chips contained 7.3 x 10(6) fungal spores/mg. An exposure to 3 mg of straw or wood chips dust/m(3) (the Swedish and Danish OEL of unspecific inhalable dust) could cause exposures to endotoxin and fungi higher than levels were health symptoms are seen to develop. The very different levels of dustiness in terms of particles and microbial components of different biofuels shows that dustiness is an important health-relevant factor to consider when choosing among biofuels and when designing worksites for handling of biofuels. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
c.f.u., bacteria, dustiness test, endotoxin, fungi, LPS, occupational health, muramic acid, particles, straw, wood chips
in
Annals of Occupational Hygiene
volume
48
issue
4
pages
327 - 338
publisher
Oxford University Press
external identifiers
  • wos:000222415100003
  • pmid:15191942
  • scopus:3042608638
ISSN
1475-3162
DOI
10.1093/annhyg/meh016
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
b42c46b8-4e09-47e9-b16a-00261aa8da2c (old id 273604)
date added to LUP
2007-10-25 12:20:22
date last changed
2017-04-09 04:15:04
@article{b42c46b8-4e09-47e9-b16a-00261aa8da2c,
  abstract     = {Exposure to organic dust originating from biofuels can cause adverse health effects. In the present study we have assessed the dustiness in terms of microbial components and particles of various biofuels by using a rotating drum as a dust generator. Microbial components from straw, wood chips, wood pellets and wood briquettes were quantified by several methods. Excellent correllations (r greater than or equal to 0.85, P &lt; 0.0001) were found: between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (as determined by 3-hydroxy fatty acid analysis) and endotoxin (as determined by a Limulus test), cultivable bacteria, total number of bacteria and muramic acid; between endotoxin and cultivable bacteria, total number of bacteria and muramic acid; between total number of bacteria and muramic acid; between cultivable fungi and total number of fungi. Straw was dustier than the other biofuels in terms of actinomycetes, bacteria, muramic acid, endotoxin, LPS, particle mass and number of particles. One of the wood chips studied and the straws had comparatively high dustiness In terms of fungi, while both wood pellets and wood briquettes had comparatively low dustiness in terms of all microbial components. An initially high particle generation rate of straw and wood chips decreased over time whereas the particle generation rate of wood briquettes and wood pellets increased during a 5 min rotation period. Particles of non-microbial origin may be the determining factor for the health risk in handling briquettes and pellets. Straw dust contained significantly more microorganisms per particle than did wood chip dust, probably because bacteria were most abundant in straw dust. The concentrations of endotoxin and fungi were high in wood and straw dust; dust from one of the straws contained 3610 EU/mg and dust from one of the chips contained 7.3 x 10(6) fungal spores/mg. An exposure to 3 mg of straw or wood chips dust/m(3) (the Swedish and Danish OEL of unspecific inhalable dust) could cause exposures to endotoxin and fungi higher than levels were health symptoms are seen to develop. The very different levels of dustiness in terms of particles and microbial components of different biofuels shows that dustiness is an important health-relevant factor to consider when choosing among biofuels and when designing worksites for handling of biofuels.},
  author       = {Madsen, AM and Martensson, L and Schneider, T and Larsson, Lennart},
  issn         = {1475-3162},
  keyword      = {c.f.u.,bacteria,dustiness test,endotoxin,fungi,LPS,occupational health,muramic acid,particles,straw,wood chips},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {327--338},
  publisher    = {Oxford University Press},
  series       = {Annals of Occupational Hygiene},
  title        = {Microbial dustiness and particle release of different biofuels},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/meh016},
  volume       = {48},
  year         = {2004},
}