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Fish-mediated trait compensation in zooplankton

Hylander, Samuel LU ; Souza, Maria Sol; Balseiro, Esteban; Modenutti, Beatriz and Hansson, Lars-Anders LU (2012) In Functional Ecology 26(3). p.608-615
Abstract
1. Environmental factors fluctuate spatially and temporally, and organisms that can alter phenotype in response to these changes may increase their fitness. Zooplankton are known to be able to induce body pigmentation in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and to reduce the pigmentation when exposed to fish predators. Hence, reduced pigmentation because of the presence of fish could potentially lead to UVR damage, which calls for alternative protective mechanisms. 2. We exposed zooplankton to fish cues and UVR stress to assess whether body pigmentation and cellular antioxidants are flexible predation and UVR defences. 3. Zooplankton exposed to fish predator cues (no direct predation) reduced their pigmentation by c. 30% in 20 days.... (More)
1. Environmental factors fluctuate spatially and temporally, and organisms that can alter phenotype in response to these changes may increase their fitness. Zooplankton are known to be able to induce body pigmentation in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and to reduce the pigmentation when exposed to fish predators. Hence, reduced pigmentation because of the presence of fish could potentially lead to UVR damage, which calls for alternative protective mechanisms. 2. We exposed zooplankton to fish cues and UVR stress to assess whether body pigmentation and cellular antioxidants are flexible predation and UVR defences. 3. Zooplankton exposed to fish predator cues (no direct predation) reduced their pigmentation by c. 30% in 20 days. However, they were able to rapidly counteract negative UVR effects by increasing the activity of antioxidant defences such as glutathione S-transferase (GST). When exposed to UVR, the GST activity increased by c. 100% in zooplankton that had previously reduced their pigmentation because of fish cues. Transparency in the zooplankton did not lead to considerably higher UVR damage, here measured as inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE). 4. We conclude that zooplankton pigmentation and antioxidant enzymes are flexible UVR defence systems, which can be induced when needed. Zooplankton may employ antioxidant defences when pigmentation is reduced to counteract predation risk and thereby rapidly respond to detrimental effects of UVR exposure, that is, they can compensate one trait with another. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
carotenoids, cholinesterase, enzymes, glutathione S-transferase, oxidative stress, phenotypic plasticity, trait compensation, ultraviolet, radiation, zooplankton
in
Functional Ecology
volume
26
issue
3
pages
608 - 615
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • wos:000304256500008
  • scopus:84861228889
ISSN
1365-2435
DOI
10.1111/j.1365-2435.2012.01976.x
project
CAnMove
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
64aaebbe-4acf-4086-9534-f23f57a8d74d (old id 2799685)
date added to LUP
2012-06-25 11:17:45
date last changed
2017-10-22 03:26:38
@article{64aaebbe-4acf-4086-9534-f23f57a8d74d,
  abstract     = {1. Environmental factors fluctuate spatially and temporally, and organisms that can alter phenotype in response to these changes may increase their fitness. Zooplankton are known to be able to induce body pigmentation in response to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and to reduce the pigmentation when exposed to fish predators. Hence, reduced pigmentation because of the presence of fish could potentially lead to UVR damage, which calls for alternative protective mechanisms. 2. We exposed zooplankton to fish cues and UVR stress to assess whether body pigmentation and cellular antioxidants are flexible predation and UVR defences. 3. Zooplankton exposed to fish predator cues (no direct predation) reduced their pigmentation by c. 30% in 20 days. However, they were able to rapidly counteract negative UVR effects by increasing the activity of antioxidant defences such as glutathione S-transferase (GST). When exposed to UVR, the GST activity increased by c. 100% in zooplankton that had previously reduced their pigmentation because of fish cues. Transparency in the zooplankton did not lead to considerably higher UVR damage, here measured as inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE). 4. We conclude that zooplankton pigmentation and antioxidant enzymes are flexible UVR defence systems, which can be induced when needed. Zooplankton may employ antioxidant defences when pigmentation is reduced to counteract predation risk and thereby rapidly respond to detrimental effects of UVR exposure, that is, they can compensate one trait with another.},
  author       = {Hylander, Samuel and Souza, Maria Sol and Balseiro, Esteban and Modenutti, Beatriz and Hansson, Lars-Anders},
  issn         = {1365-2435},
  keyword      = {carotenoids,cholinesterase,enzymes,glutathione S-transferase,oxidative stress,phenotypic plasticity,trait compensation,ultraviolet,radiation,zooplankton},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {608--615},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {Functional Ecology},
  title        = {Fish-mediated trait compensation in zooplankton},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2012.01976.x},
  volume       = {26},
  year         = {2012},
}