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Accident risk and safety protection in automated production

Backström, Tomas (1996) In Arbete och hälsa
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Denna avhandling behandlar automationsolycksfall inom tillverkningsindustrin. Automationsolycksfall definieras som ett olycksfall där en person skadas av en energi som kontrollerades, eller borde ha kontrollerats, av en automatiserad utrustning. Avhandlingen grundar sig på av fem vetenskapliga artiklar. De tre första är baserade på data från den obligatoriska arbetsskadeanmälan. Deras mål är att ange frekvenser, typ av skada och sammanhang för automationsolycksfall. De två sista artiklarna beskriver händelsesekvenser vid automationsolycksfall på basis av speciellt utförda olycksfallsutredningar. Deras mål är att utveckla begrepp och teorier. Den ena artikeln fokuserar felfunktioner hos... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Denna avhandling behandlar automationsolycksfall inom tillverkningsindustrin. Automationsolycksfall definieras som ett olycksfall där en person skadas av en energi som kontrollerades, eller borde ha kontrollerats, av en automatiserad utrustning. Avhandlingen grundar sig på av fem vetenskapliga artiklar. De tre första är baserade på data från den obligatoriska arbetsskadeanmälan. Deras mål är att ange frekvenser, typ av skada och sammanhang för automationsolycksfall. De två sista artiklarna beskriver händelsesekvenser vid automationsolycksfall på basis av speciellt utförda olycksfallsutredningar. Deras mål är att utveckla begrepp och teorier. Den ena artikeln fokuserar felfunktioner hos utrustningar och den andra skyddsanordningar. Resultaten ger inte grund för att peka ut någon speciell typ av automatiserad utrustning som farligast. Men automationsolycksfallen inträffade ofta i de delar av utrustningarna som hanterade och transporterade arbetsstyckena. De flesta personer som skadats i automationsolycksfall är maskinoperatörer, de har även högre frekvens automationsolycksfall per person än andra yrkeskategorier. Automationsolycksfall leder till jämförelsevis långa sjukskrivningsperioder och det är mest fingrar och händer som skadas. Delar av automationsolycksfallens genes beskrivs. I nästan samtliga fall inträffade skadan när en person träffades av en rörlig del av en automatiserad utrustning. För att detta ska kunna inträffa måste a) en person befinna sig inom området för rörliga maskindelar, b) en maskindel röra sig och c) ingen skyddsanordning hindra de två först nämnda villkoren. Hur de tre villkoren kan uppstå beskrivs i avhandlingen och råd ges om hur man kan minska risken för automationsolycksfall. Under analysen av automationsolycksfallens genes blev det uppenbart att det fanns motiv för att utveckla en ny olycksfallsmodell. "The systemic accident modell" (SAM) består av tre element: system evolution, situationsfaktorer och olycksfallssekvens. En av de viktigaste åtgärderna för personsäkerhet i automatiserad produktion är att minimera störningar av produktionssystemets jämvikt. För det första kan man försöka bygga ett stabilt system, som sällan kommer att komma ur jämvikt. För det andra kan man försöka förutse framtida jämviktsstörningar och planera för deras omhändertagande. Till sist bör operatörerna ges resurser att klara oförutsedda jämviktsstörningar. Tänkbara ideal för säkerhetslösningar diskuteras. Det rekommenderade idealet är skyddsanordningar som så litet så möjligt stör arbetets utförande, kombinerat med organisatoriska och sociala barriärer mot riskabelt arbete. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis treats automation accidents in manufacturing industry. An automation accident is defined as an accident whereby a person is injured by an energy which was controlled, or should have been controlled, by an automated item of equipment. The thesis comprises five papers. The first three are based on data from mandatory Swedish occupational-injury reports. Their aim is to show frequencies, kind of injuries and context for automation accidents. The two final papers describe the sequence of events involved in automation accidents on the basis of tailored investigations. The aim of these papers is to develop concepts and theories. The one concentrates on technical faults, the other on safeguards. The findings do not provide grounds for... (More)
This thesis treats automation accidents in manufacturing industry. An automation accident is defined as an accident whereby a person is injured by an energy which was controlled, or should have been controlled, by an automated item of equipment. The thesis comprises five papers. The first three are based on data from mandatory Swedish occupational-injury reports. Their aim is to show frequencies, kind of injuries and context for automation accidents. The two final papers describe the sequence of events involved in automation accidents on the basis of tailored investigations. The aim of these papers is to develop concepts and theories. The one concentrates on technical faults, the other on safeguards. The findings do not provide grounds for designating any particular kind of automated equipment as the most dangerous. However, the parts of the equipment where injuries most often incurred are those for the automated conveying and handling of work pieces. The majority of persons injured in automation accidents are machine operators, who also show a higher frequency of automation accidents per person. Automation accidents give rise to comparatively long periods of sick leave. Most of the injuries were to the hands and fingers. Aspects of the genesis of automation accidents are described. In a vast majority of automation accidents an injury is incurred when contact is made between a person and a moving part of an automated machine. Necessary conditions for this injury event are a) that a person is in the machine-movement zone, b) that a machine movement is taking place, and c) that there is no safety device preventing either of these two conditions being met. How these three conditions can arise is described, and advice is provided on measures that might reduce automation-specific accident risks. While analyzing the genesis of automation accidents, it became evident that the development of a new accident model was motivated. The systemic accident model (SAM) consists of three elements: system evolution, situational conditions, and accident sequence. One of the key measures for promoting personal safety at automated installations is to eliminate machine failures. First, efforts can be made to avoid loss of system equilibrium. Second, future losses of equilibrium should be planned for. Third, persons operating automated equipment should be given resources to cope with unforeseen loss of system equilibrium. Various safety ideals are discussed. A conclusion is that future safety may lie in the use of safety devices which, as far as possible, do not hamper the performance of work, combined with organizational and social barriers to unsafe work. (Less)
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author
opponent
  • Prof. Kjellén, Urban, Norges Tekniska Högskola
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Environmental technology, computer control, Safety, mechanization, safeguard, safety device, model, manufacturing, industry, technical fault, machine failure, prevention, Teknik, Technological sciences, pollution control, Miljöteknik, kontroll av utsläpp, Management of enterprises, Företagsledning, management
in
Arbete och hälsa
pages
75 pages
publisher
National Institute for Working Life
defense location
Sal M:B, Maskinsektionen, Tekniska högskolan i Lund
defense date
1996-05-31 10:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN LUTMDN/TMAT--1003--SE
ISSN
0346-7821
ISBN
91-7045-372-1
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
df0d4fcd-3aef-4bbf-93b2-e9f74b69a440 (old id 28557)
date added to LUP
2007-06-12 15:27:07
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:45
@phdthesis{df0d4fcd-3aef-4bbf-93b2-e9f74b69a440,
  abstract     = {This thesis treats automation accidents in manufacturing industry. An automation accident is defined as an accident whereby a person is injured by an energy which was controlled, or should have been controlled, by an automated item of equipment. The thesis comprises five papers. The first three are based on data from mandatory Swedish occupational-injury reports. Their aim is to show frequencies, kind of injuries and context for automation accidents. The two final papers describe the sequence of events involved in automation accidents on the basis of tailored investigations. The aim of these papers is to develop concepts and theories. The one concentrates on technical faults, the other on safeguards. The findings do not provide grounds for designating any particular kind of automated equipment as the most dangerous. However, the parts of the equipment where injuries most often incurred are those for the automated conveying and handling of work pieces. The majority of persons injured in automation accidents are machine operators, who also show a higher frequency of automation accidents per person. Automation accidents give rise to comparatively long periods of sick leave. Most of the injuries were to the hands and fingers. Aspects of the genesis of automation accidents are described. In a vast majority of automation accidents an injury is incurred when contact is made between a person and a moving part of an automated machine. Necessary conditions for this injury event are a) that a person is in the machine-movement zone, b) that a machine movement is taking place, and c) that there is no safety device preventing either of these two conditions being met. How these three conditions can arise is described, and advice is provided on measures that might reduce automation-specific accident risks. While analyzing the genesis of automation accidents, it became evident that the development of a new accident model was motivated. The systemic accident model (SAM) consists of three elements: system evolution, situational conditions, and accident sequence. One of the key measures for promoting personal safety at automated installations is to eliminate machine failures. First, efforts can be made to avoid loss of system equilibrium. Second, future losses of equilibrium should be planned for. Third, persons operating automated equipment should be given resources to cope with unforeseen loss of system equilibrium. Various safety ideals are discussed. A conclusion is that future safety may lie in the use of safety devices which, as far as possible, do not hamper the performance of work, combined with organizational and social barriers to unsafe work.},
  author       = {Backström, Tomas},
  isbn         = {91-7045-372-1},
  issn         = {0346-7821},
  keyword      = {Environmental technology,computer control,Safety,mechanization,safeguard,safety device,model,manufacturing,industry,technical fault,machine failure,prevention,Teknik,Technological sciences,pollution control,Miljöteknik,kontroll av utsläpp,Management of enterprises,Företagsledning,management},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {75},
  publisher    = {National Institute for Working Life},
  series       = {Arbete och hälsa},
  title        = {Accident risk and safety protection in automated production},
  year         = {1996},
}