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Real-world traffic emission factors of gases and particles measured in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden

Kristensson, Adam LU ; Johansson, C; Westerholm, R; Swietlicki, Erik LU ; Gidhagen, L; Wideqvist, U and Vesely, V (2004) In Atmospheric Environment 38(5). p.657-673
Abstract
Measurements in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden give the real-world traffic emission factors for a number of gaseous and particle pollutants. These include 49 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), CO, NOX, benzene, toluene, xylenes, aldehydes, elements and inorganic/organic carbon contained in particles, the sub-micrometer aerosol number size distribution, PM2.5 and PM10. The exhaust pipe emission factors are divided with the help of automated traffic counts into the two pollutant sources, the heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) and light-duty vehicles (LDV). The LDV fleet contains 95% petrol cars and the total fleet contains about 5% HDV. When data permitted, the emission factors were further calculated at different vehicle speeds.... (More)
Measurements in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden give the real-world traffic emission factors for a number of gaseous and particle pollutants. These include 49 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), CO, NOX, benzene, toluene, xylenes, aldehydes, elements and inorganic/organic carbon contained in particles, the sub-micrometer aerosol number size distribution, PM2.5 and PM10. The exhaust pipe emission factors are divided with the help of automated traffic counts into the two pollutant sources, the heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) and light-duty vehicles (LDV). The LDV fleet contains 95% petrol cars and the total fleet contains about 5% HDV. When data permitted, the emission factors were further calculated at different vehicle speeds. The current work shows that average CO, NOX and benzene emission factors amounted to 5.3, 1.4 and 0.017 g veh(-1) km(-1), respectively. Since the mid-90s CO and benzene decreased by about 15%, carbonyls by about a factor 2, whereas NOX did not change much. PAR emission factors were 2-15 times higher than found during dynamometer tests. Most particles are distributed around 20 nm diameter and the LDV fleet contributes to about 65% of both PM and particle number. In general, the gaseous emissions are higher in Sweden than in USA and Switzerland, foremost due to the lower fraction catalytic converters in Sweden. The PM and number emissions of particles are also slightly higher in the Swedish tunnel. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
particle size distribution, PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, NOX, aldehydes
in
Atmospheric Environment
volume
38
issue
5
pages
657 - 673
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000188777000002
  • scopus:0348108282
ISSN
1352-2310
DOI
10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.10.030
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
d974852f-21a6-4752-8c41-ef32fa27a55b (old id 288487)
date added to LUP
2007-10-23 19:34:59
date last changed
2017-10-29 04:14:56
@article{d974852f-21a6-4752-8c41-ef32fa27a55b,
  abstract     = {Measurements in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden give the real-world traffic emission factors for a number of gaseous and particle pollutants. These include 49 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), CO, NOX, benzene, toluene, xylenes, aldehydes, elements and inorganic/organic carbon contained in particles, the sub-micrometer aerosol number size distribution, PM2.5 and PM10. The exhaust pipe emission factors are divided with the help of automated traffic counts into the two pollutant sources, the heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) and light-duty vehicles (LDV). The LDV fleet contains 95% petrol cars and the total fleet contains about 5% HDV. When data permitted, the emission factors were further calculated at different vehicle speeds. The current work shows that average CO, NOX and benzene emission factors amounted to 5.3, 1.4 and 0.017 g veh(-1) km(-1), respectively. Since the mid-90s CO and benzene decreased by about 15%, carbonyls by about a factor 2, whereas NOX did not change much. PAR emission factors were 2-15 times higher than found during dynamometer tests. Most particles are distributed around 20 nm diameter and the LDV fleet contributes to about 65% of both PM and particle number. In general, the gaseous emissions are higher in Sweden than in USA and Switzerland, foremost due to the lower fraction catalytic converters in Sweden. The PM and number emissions of particles are also slightly higher in the Swedish tunnel. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Kristensson, Adam and Johansson, C and Westerholm, R and Swietlicki, Erik and Gidhagen, L and Wideqvist, U and Vesely, V},
  issn         = {1352-2310},
  keyword      = {particle size distribution,PM2.5,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,NOX,aldehydes},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {657--673},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Atmospheric Environment},
  title        = {Real-world traffic emission factors of gases and particles measured in a road tunnel in Stockholm, Sweden},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.10.030},
  volume       = {38},
  year         = {2004},
}