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EFAS Score — Multilingual development and validation of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) by the score committee of the European Foot and Ankle Society (EFAS)

Richter, Martinus ; Agren, Per Henrik ; Besse, Jean Luc ; Cöster, Maria LU ; Kofoed, Hakon ; Maffulli, Nicola ; Rosenbaum, Dieter ; Steultjens, Martijn ; Alvarez, Fernando and Boszczyk, Andrzej , et al. (2018) In Foot and Ankle Surgery 24(3). p.185-204
Abstract

Background: A scientifically sound validated foot and ankle specific score validated ab initio for different languages is missing. The aim of a project of the European Foot and Ankle Society (EFAS) was to develop, validate, and publish a new score(the EFAS-Score) for different European languages. Methods: The EFAS Score was developed and validated in three stages: (1) item (question) identification, (2) item reduction and scale exploration, (3) confirmatory analyses and responsiveness. The following score specifications were chosen: scale/subscale (Likert 0–4), questionnaire based, outcome measure, patient related outcome measurement. For stage 3, data were collected pre-operatively and at a minimum follow-up of 3 months and mean... (More)

Background: A scientifically sound validated foot and ankle specific score validated ab initio for different languages is missing. The aim of a project of the European Foot and Ankle Society (EFAS) was to develop, validate, and publish a new score(the EFAS-Score) for different European languages. Methods: The EFAS Score was developed and validated in three stages: (1) item (question) identification, (2) item reduction and scale exploration, (3) confirmatory analyses and responsiveness. The following score specifications were chosen: scale/subscale (Likert 0–4), questionnaire based, outcome measure, patient related outcome measurement. For stage 3, data were collected pre-operatively and at a minimum follow-up of 3 months and mean follow-up of 6 months. Item reduction, scale exploration, confirmatory analyses and responsiveness were executed using analyses from classical test theory and item response theory. Results: Stage 1 resulted in 31 general and 7 sports related questions. In stage 2, a 6-item general EFAS Score was constructed using English, German, French and Swedish language data. In stage 3, internal consistency of the scale was confirmed in seven languages: the original four languages, plus Dutch, Italian and Polish (Cronbach's Alpha >0.86 in all language versions). Responsiveness was good, with moderate to large effect sizes in all languages, and significant positive association between the EFAS Score and patient-reported improvement. No sound EFAS Sports Score could be constructed. Conclusions: The multi-language EFAS Score was successfully validated in the orthopaedic ankle and foot surgery patient population, including a wide variety of foot and ankle pathologies. All score versions are freely available at www.efas.co.

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publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Ankle, Foot, PROM, Score, Validation
in
Foot and Ankle Surgery
volume
24
issue
3
pages
20 pages
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • pmid:29933960
  • scopus:85048585894
ISSN
1268-7731
DOI
10.1016/j.fas.2018.05.004
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
28b5ccf8-6806-447d-b8c5-c64f813bce11
date added to LUP
2018-07-03 14:31:33
date last changed
2020-10-27 04:22:35
@article{28b5ccf8-6806-447d-b8c5-c64f813bce11,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: A scientifically sound validated foot and ankle specific score validated ab initio for different languages is missing. The aim of a project of the European Foot and Ankle Society (EFAS) was to develop, validate, and publish a new score(the EFAS-Score) for different European languages. Methods: The EFAS Score was developed and validated in three stages: (1) item (question) identification, (2) item reduction and scale exploration, (3) confirmatory analyses and responsiveness. The following score specifications were chosen: scale/subscale (Likert 0–4), questionnaire based, outcome measure, patient related outcome measurement. For stage 3, data were collected pre-operatively and at a minimum follow-up of 3 months and mean follow-up of 6 months. Item reduction, scale exploration, confirmatory analyses and responsiveness were executed using analyses from classical test theory and item response theory. Results: Stage 1 resulted in 31 general and 7 sports related questions. In stage 2, a 6-item general EFAS Score was constructed using English, German, French and Swedish language data. In stage 3, internal consistency of the scale was confirmed in seven languages: the original four languages, plus Dutch, Italian and Polish (Cronbach's Alpha &gt;0.86 in all language versions). Responsiveness was good, with moderate to large effect sizes in all languages, and significant positive association between the EFAS Score and patient-reported improvement. No sound EFAS Sports Score could be constructed. Conclusions: The multi-language EFAS Score was successfully validated in the orthopaedic ankle and foot surgery patient population, including a wide variety of foot and ankle pathologies. All score versions are freely available at www.efas.co.</p>},
  author       = {Richter, Martinus and Agren, Per Henrik and Besse, Jean Luc and Cöster, Maria and Kofoed, Hakon and Maffulli, Nicola and Rosenbaum, Dieter and Steultjens, Martijn and Alvarez, Fernando and Boszczyk, Andrzej and Buedts, Kris and Guelfi, Marco and Liszka, Henryk and Louwerens, Jan Willem and Repo, Jussi P. and Samaila, Elena and Stephens, Michael and Witteveen, Angelique G.H.},
  issn         = {1268-7731},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {06},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {185--204},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Foot and Ankle Surgery},
  title        = {EFAS Score — Multilingual development and validation of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) by the score committee of the European Foot and Ankle Society (EFAS)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2018.05.004},
  doi          = {10.1016/j.fas.2018.05.004},
  volume       = {24},
  year         = {2018},
}