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Friction Stir Welding in HSLA-65 Steel: Part I. Influence of Weld Speed and Tool Material on Microstructural Development

Barnes, S. J.; Bhatti, A. R.; Steuwer, Axel LU ; Johnson, R.; Altenkirch, J. and Withers, P. J. (2012) In Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science 43A(7). p.2342-2355
Abstract
A systematic set of single-pass full penetration friction stir bead-on-plate and butt-welds in HSLA-65 steel were produced using a range of different traverse speeds (50 to 500 mm/min) and two tool materials (W-Re and PCBN). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy, and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross sections. The maximum and minimum hardnesses were found to be dependent upon both welding traverse speed and tool material. A maximum hardness of 323 Hv(10) was observed in the mixed martensite/bainite/ferrite microstructure of the weld nugget for a welding traverse speed of 200 mm/min using a PCBN tool. A minimum hardness of 179 Hv(10) was found in the outer heat-affected... (More)
A systematic set of single-pass full penetration friction stir bead-on-plate and butt-welds in HSLA-65 steel were produced using a range of different traverse speeds (50 to 500 mm/min) and two tool materials (W-Re and PCBN). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy, and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross sections. The maximum and minimum hardnesses were found to be dependent upon both welding traverse speed and tool material. A maximum hardness of 323 Hv(10) was observed in the mixed martensite/bainite/ferrite microstructure of the weld nugget for a welding traverse speed of 200 mm/min using a PCBN tool. A minimum hardness of 179 Hv(10) was found in the outer heat-affected zone (OHAZ) for welding traverse speed of 50 mm/min using a PCBN tool. The distance from the weld centerline to the OHAZ increased with decreasing weld speed due to the greater heat input into the weld. Likewise for similar energy inputs, the size of the transformed zone and the OHAZ increased on moving from a W-Re tool to a PCBN tool probably due to the poorer thermal conductivity of the PCBN tool. The associated residual stresses are reported in Part II of this series of articles. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
volume
43A
issue
7
pages
2342 - 2355
publisher
Springer
external identifiers
  • wos:000304404000016
  • scopus:84861844498
ISSN
1073-5623
DOI
10.1007/s11661-012-1110-z
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
8fc5c3d2-0e2e-4900-b2f1-390ace477bd5 (old id 2906425)
date added to LUP
2012-07-23 16:44:18
date last changed
2017-01-01 05:44:38
@article{8fc5c3d2-0e2e-4900-b2f1-390ace477bd5,
  abstract     = {A systematic set of single-pass full penetration friction stir bead-on-plate and butt-welds in HSLA-65 steel were produced using a range of different traverse speeds (50 to 500 mm/min) and two tool materials (W-Re and PCBN). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy, and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross sections. The maximum and minimum hardnesses were found to be dependent upon both welding traverse speed and tool material. A maximum hardness of 323 Hv(10) was observed in the mixed martensite/bainite/ferrite microstructure of the weld nugget for a welding traverse speed of 200 mm/min using a PCBN tool. A minimum hardness of 179 Hv(10) was found in the outer heat-affected zone (OHAZ) for welding traverse speed of 50 mm/min using a PCBN tool. The distance from the weld centerline to the OHAZ increased with decreasing weld speed due to the greater heat input into the weld. Likewise for similar energy inputs, the size of the transformed zone and the OHAZ increased on moving from a W-Re tool to a PCBN tool probably due to the poorer thermal conductivity of the PCBN tool. The associated residual stresses are reported in Part II of this series of articles.},
  author       = {Barnes, S. J. and Bhatti, A. R. and Steuwer, Axel and Johnson, R. and Altenkirch, J. and Withers, P. J.},
  issn         = {1073-5623},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {2342--2355},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science},
  title        = {Friction Stir Welding in HSLA-65 Steel: Part I. Influence of Weld Speed and Tool Material on Microstructural Development},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11661-012-1110-z},
  volume       = {43A},
  year         = {2012},
}