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Evaluation and Mitigation of Industrial Fire Hazards

Andersson, Petra LU (1997)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Ett beräkningsprogram, "FREIA", lämpligt för industriell brandriskanalys presenteras. Programmet beräknar skada på människor inom och utom en byggnad på grund av en brand eller ett utsläpp av farligt gods.



För några av de i riskanalysen ingående momenten har ytterligare forskning utförts. Dessa områden är: Detektion, Släckmedel samt Brännskada på människa. Det är i dagens läge inte möjligt att förutsäga när en rökdetektor i en komplex rumsgeometri kommer att aktiveras av en brand. Olika möjligheter för att beräkna aktivering med hjälp av CFD-modeller har undersökts. Halonersättning är ett mycket aktuellt ämne. Faktorer att tänka på vid halonersättning diskuteras liksom... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Ett beräkningsprogram, "FREIA", lämpligt för industriell brandriskanalys presenteras. Programmet beräknar skada på människor inom och utom en byggnad på grund av en brand eller ett utsläpp av farligt gods.



För några av de i riskanalysen ingående momenten har ytterligare forskning utförts. Dessa områden är: Detektion, Släckmedel samt Brännskada på människa. Det är i dagens läge inte möjligt att förutsäga när en rökdetektor i en komplex rumsgeometri kommer att aktiveras av en brand. Olika möjligheter för att beräkna aktivering med hjälp av CFD-modeller har undersökts. Halonersättning är ett mycket aktuellt ämne. Faktorer att tänka på vid halonersättning diskuteras liksom möjligheten att använda vattendimma som rumsskydd. En testdocka lämplig att mäta brännskador på människor med presenteras. (Less)
Abstract
A tool suitable for conducting industrial fire and explosion hazard analysis is presented, together with an identification of weak links in the hazard evaluation chain. For some of the weak links additional research has been carried out.



The tool, "FREIA", evaluates the consequences for humans and components due to fires and accidental releases indoors and outdoors using established engineering methods.



Investigations have been carried out to find possible methods to simulate detector activation. The temperature, velocity, soot, CO2, CO and oxygen concentration were determined in the plume above a fire. Close agreement was found between the different compound fields. A CFD simulation of the same plume... (More)
A tool suitable for conducting industrial fire and explosion hazard analysis is presented, together with an identification of weak links in the hazard evaluation chain. For some of the weak links additional research has been carried out.



The tool, "FREIA", evaluates the consequences for humans and components due to fires and accidental releases indoors and outdoors using established engineering methods.



Investigations have been carried out to find possible methods to simulate detector activation. The temperature, velocity, soot, CO2, CO and oxygen concentration were determined in the plume above a fire. Close agreement was found between the different compound fields. A CFD simulation of the same plume closely matched the experiments. However, there are large uncertainties involved when transforming light attenuation measurements into soot volume fraction. Simulations of tests according to the EN54 detector standard were also carried out. The agreement differed for different fuels. In addition, there is a problem with comparing light attenuation measurement performed at different wavelengths. All the results obtained indicate that it is possible to model smoke detector activation by treating the soot as an inert gas, or by assuming the soot concentration closely corresponds to one of the other compound fields. Heat detector activation is not as complicated to simulate.



The phasing out of halons often demands new solutions in order to maintain the given protection level. More recently water mist has been mentioned as a possible replacement for halons. Experiments together with theoretical considerations have shown that no presently available water mist system fulfils the requirements of a total flooding system. A narrow window exists, however, in which a water mist can function as a total flooding system. Several halon-like agents have been developed. These, however, produce more thermal decomposition products than halons, the amount produced was found to be proportional to the amount of fuel burnt in the presence of the agent. In addition, experiments have shown that they can actually increase the fire instead of extinguishing it, if not properly designed.



Estimating human burns is difficult; a test dummy for such measurements is presented. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Dr Nolan, P. F., South Bank University, London
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Teknik, Technological sciences, Effect of fires, Accidental release, Water mist, Halon replacement, Industrial Fire Hazards, Human burns, Smoke detektion
pages
260 pages
publisher
Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Lund University
defense location
John Ericssons Väg 1, lecture room A.
defense date
1997-10-24 10:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: LUTVDG/(TVBB-1015)
ISSN
1102-8246
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
092946bb-02c3-4d45-a9e0-552a94d95704 (old id 29649)
date added to LUP
2007-06-13 16:15:56
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:52
@phdthesis{092946bb-02c3-4d45-a9e0-552a94d95704,
  abstract     = {A tool suitable for conducting industrial fire and explosion hazard analysis is presented, together with an identification of weak links in the hazard evaluation chain. For some of the weak links additional research has been carried out.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The tool, "FREIA", evaluates the consequences for humans and components due to fires and accidental releases indoors and outdoors using established engineering methods.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Investigations have been carried out to find possible methods to simulate detector activation. The temperature, velocity, soot, CO2, CO and oxygen concentration were determined in the plume above a fire. Close agreement was found between the different compound fields. A CFD simulation of the same plume closely matched the experiments. However, there are large uncertainties involved when transforming light attenuation measurements into soot volume fraction. Simulations of tests according to the EN54 detector standard were also carried out. The agreement differed for different fuels. In addition, there is a problem with comparing light attenuation measurement performed at different wavelengths. All the results obtained indicate that it is possible to model smoke detector activation by treating the soot as an inert gas, or by assuming the soot concentration closely corresponds to one of the other compound fields. Heat detector activation is not as complicated to simulate.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The phasing out of halons often demands new solutions in order to maintain the given protection level. More recently water mist has been mentioned as a possible replacement for halons. Experiments together with theoretical considerations have shown that no presently available water mist system fulfils the requirements of a total flooding system. A narrow window exists, however, in which a water mist can function as a total flooding system. Several halon-like agents have been developed. These, however, produce more thermal decomposition products than halons, the amount produced was found to be proportional to the amount of fuel burnt in the presence of the agent. In addition, experiments have shown that they can actually increase the fire instead of extinguishing it, if not properly designed.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Estimating human burns is difficult; a test dummy for such measurements is presented.},
  author       = {Andersson, Petra},
  issn         = {1102-8246},
  keyword      = {Teknik,Technological sciences,Effect of fires,Accidental release,Water mist,Halon replacement,Industrial Fire Hazards,Human burns,Smoke detektion},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {260},
  publisher    = {Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Evaluation and Mitigation of Industrial Fire Hazards},
  year         = {1997},
}