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To work or not to work in an extended working life? Factors in working and retirement decisions

Nilsson, Kerstin LU (2013) In Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series 2013:4.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Antalet äldre i befolkningen ökar i förhållande till andra åldersgrupper. Detta beskrivs medföra en ekonomisk utmaning för samhället och att fler äldre behöver skjuta upp sin ålderspension. Avhandlingen bygger på fyra studier med det övergripande syftet att bidra till ökad kunskap om faktorer som medverkar till ett förlängt alternativt förkortat arbetsliv bland personer som är 55 år och äldre.

Resultatet visade att självskattad hälsa var ett bättre mått än diagnostiserad ohälsa för om äldre arbetstagare ansåg sig kunna arbeta till 65 år eller längre. Hälsa var inte ett generellt hinder i arbetslivet om den äldre arbetstagaren upplevde sitt arbete tillfredsställande och att de fick... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Antalet äldre i befolkningen ökar i förhållande till andra åldersgrupper. Detta beskrivs medföra en ekonomisk utmaning för samhället och att fler äldre behöver skjuta upp sin ålderspension. Avhandlingen bygger på fyra studier med det övergripande syftet att bidra till ökad kunskap om faktorer som medverkar till ett förlängt alternativt förkortat arbetsliv bland personer som är 55 år och äldre.

Resultatet visade att självskattad hälsa var ett bättre mått än diagnostiserad ohälsa för om äldre arbetstagare ansåg sig kunna arbeta till 65 år eller längre. Hälsa var inte ett generellt hinder i arbetslivet om den äldre arbetstagaren upplevde sitt arbete tillfredsställande och att de fick tillräckligt med tid och möjlighet att återhämta sig. Det fanns inte heller några statistiskt signifikanta skillnader angående arbetsskadeincidence mellan äldre och yngre åldersgrupperna verksamma inom en av Sveriges farligaste arbetsmiljöer, lant- och skogsbruk. God psykisk och fysisk arbetsmiljö, måttligt arbetstempo och lämpliga arbetstider, samt rätt kompetens och möjlighet till kompetensutveckling, var associerat med om äldre arbetstagare ansåg sig kunna arbeta i ett förlängt arbetsliv inom hälso- och sjukvården. Attityd till äldre i organisationen, motivations faktorer samt arbetstillfredsställelse, var associerat med om de äldre ansåg sig vilja arbeta i ett förlängt arbetsliv. Hälsa, ekonomiska incitament, familj, fritidsysselsättningar och attityd till pension i samhället var associerat med om äldre ansåg sig både kunna arbeta och att vilja arbeta i ett förlängt arbetsliv.

I det slutliga pensionsbeslutet övervägdes fyra teman: i) möjlighet att balansera och anpassa det funktionella åldrandet och hälsan till arbetssituationen; ii) den ekonomiska situationen; iii) möjlighet till social inkludering i ett positivt sammanhang; iv) möjlighet till meningsfulla aktiviteter. Om dessa teman ansågs bäst i eller utanför arbetslivet var avgörande för beslutet att arbeta eller att gå i ålderspension.

Sammanfattningsvis visar resutaten i denna avhandling att följande tre förutsättningar behövs vara tillfredsställande om samhället vill att fler äldre individer ska arbeta i ett förlängt arbetsliv: i) grundläggande förutsättningar för arbete, dvs. hälsa, ekonomiska incitament och familj och samhällets attityder till ett ett förlängt arbete; ii) hårdvara i arbetssituationen, dvs. den fysiska och psykiska arbetsmiljön, arbetstakt och arbetstid, kompetens och kunskaper; och iii) mjukvara i arbetssituationen, dvs. attityden från chefer och organisation, motivation och arbetstillfredsställelse. För att skapa dessa förutsättningar är det även viktigt att generera incitament för organisationer, företag och chefer till att kunna och vilja behålla äldre i arbetskraften och medverka till ett hållbart arbetsliv till en hög ålder. (Less)
Abstract
In most of the industrialised world, the proportion of older and retired people in the population is continuously increasing. This will have budgetary implications for maintaining the welfare state, because the active working section of the population must fund the non-active and old population.

Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to obtain knowledge about older workers’ work and life situation in association with their planning and decision to retire from working life.

Method: The thesis includes one qualitative and three quantitative studies conducted in Sweden.

Result: Self-rated health was found to be a better measure than diagnosed disease of whether older workers believed they could work until 65 years... (More)
In most of the industrialised world, the proportion of older and retired people in the population is continuously increasing. This will have budgetary implications for maintaining the welfare state, because the active working section of the population must fund the non-active and old population.

Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to obtain knowledge about older workers’ work and life situation in association with their planning and decision to retire from working life.

Method: The thesis includes one qualitative and three quantitative studies conducted in Sweden.

Result: Self-rated health was found to be a better measure than diagnosed disease of whether older workers believed they could work until 65 years or beyond. Health seems not to be a general impediment to working in old age if older workers are satisfied with their work situation and have enough time and opportunities to recover from fatigue. In one of Sweden’s most hazardous work environments, older workers were not injured significantly more often than younger workers. Good mental and physical work environment, moderate working pace and working time, and the right competence and possibility for skills development were factors determining whether older workers believed they can extend their working life. Attitude to older workers in the organisation, motivation and work satisfaction were factors determining whether older workers want to extend working life. Health, personal economic incentives, family/leisure pursuits and attitude to pension in society affected both whether people believed they can and wanted to extend their working life.

In their final retirement decision, older workers considered: i) their possibility to balance and adapt functional ageing and health to a sustainable work situation; ii) their economic situation; iii) possibilities for social inclusion and coherence; and iv) possibilities for meaningful activities. Whether these requirements were best fulfilled in or outside working life determined the decision to continue working or to retire.

Conclusion: If it is desirable for society that people will to extend their working life, both the “can work” and the “want to work” factors need to be met. It is important to provide a good fit inside working life. This requires a focus not only on older workers, but also on organisations and managers in order to provide incentives that keep older workers in the work force. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Docent Stattin, Mikael, Sociology, Umeå University
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
ageing, older worker, retirement planning, retirement decision, motivation, meaningful activity, social inclusion, macro, meso, micro, work environment, working life, work ability, work injury, health, public health, diagnosed disease, self-rated health, organisation, basic premises for work, hardware in work, software in work, age, Success and failure factors, folkhälsa, demographic shifts, healthy ageing, healthy work places, retirement, successful ageing, occupational environment, Occupational medicine, work motivation, demografy, men and women
categories
Higher Education
in
Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series
volume
2013:4
pages
180 pages
publisher
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
defense location
F1 C-blocket, Skånes Universitetssjukhus i Lund
defense date
2013-01-18 09:00
ISSN
1652-8220
ISBN
978-91-87189-72-2
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
29698e42-cf1a-4b9d-ba30-ed43d2d32caf (old id 3346485)
date added to LUP
2013-01-07 11:55:11
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:49
@phdthesis{29698e42-cf1a-4b9d-ba30-ed43d2d32caf,
  abstract     = {In most of the industrialised world, the proportion of older and retired people in the population is continuously increasing. This will have budgetary implications for maintaining the welfare state, because the active working section of the population must fund the non-active and old population.<br/><br>
Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to obtain knowledge about older workers’ work and life situation in association with their planning and decision to retire from working life.<br/><br>
Method: The thesis includes one qualitative and three quantitative studies conducted in Sweden.<br/><br>
Result: Self-rated health was found to be a better measure than diagnosed disease of whether older workers believed they could work until 65 years or beyond. Health seems not to be a general impediment to working in old age if older workers are satisfied with their work situation and have enough time and opportunities to recover from fatigue. In one of Sweden’s most hazardous work environments, older workers were not injured significantly more often than younger workers. Good mental and physical work environment, moderate working pace and working time, and the right competence and possibility for skills development were factors determining whether older workers believed they can extend their working life. Attitude to older workers in the organisation, motivation and work satisfaction were factors determining whether older workers want to extend working life. Health, personal economic incentives, family/leisure pursuits and attitude to pension in society affected both whether people believed they can and wanted to extend their working life. <br/><br>
In their final retirement decision, older workers considered: i) their possibility to balance and adapt functional ageing and health to a sustainable work situation; ii) their economic situation; iii) possibilities for social inclusion and coherence; and iv) possibilities for meaningful activities. Whether these requirements were best fulfilled in or outside working life determined the decision to continue working or to retire. <br/><br>
Conclusion: If it is desirable for society that people will to extend their working life, both the “can work” and the “want to work” factors need to be met. It is important to provide a good fit inside working life. This requires a focus not only on older workers, but also on organisations and managers in order to provide incentives that keep older workers in the work force.},
  author       = {Nilsson, Kerstin},
  isbn         = {978-91-87189-72-2},
  issn         = {1652-8220},
  keyword      = {ageing,older worker,retirement planning,retirement decision,motivation,meaningful activity,social inclusion,macro,meso,micro,work environment,working life,work ability,work injury,health,public health,diagnosed disease,self-rated health,organisation,basic premises for work,hardware in work,software in work,age,Success and failure factors,folkhälsa,demographic shifts,healthy ageing,healthy work places,retirement,successful ageing,occupational environment,Occupational medicine,work motivation,demografy,men and women},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {180},
  publisher    = {Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series},
  title        = {To work or not to work in an extended working life? Factors in working and retirement decisions},
  volume       = {2013:4},
  year         = {2013},
}