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Maternal obesity as a risk factor for early childhood type 1 diabetes : a nationwide, prospective, population-based case-control study

Lindell, Nina; Carlsson, Annelie LU ; Josefsson, Ann and Samuelsson, Ulf (2017) In Diabetologia
Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Genetic and environmental factors are believed to cause type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain on the subsequent risk of childhood type 1 diabetes.

METHODS: Children in the Swedish National Quality Register for Diabetes in Children were matched with control children from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Children were included whose mothers had data available on BMI in early pregnancy and gestational weight gain, giving a total of 16,179 individuals: 3231 children with type 1 diabetes and 12,948 control children.

RESULTS: Mothers of children with type 1 diabetes were more likely to be obese (9% [n = 292/3231] vs 7.7% [n =... (More)

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Genetic and environmental factors are believed to cause type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain on the subsequent risk of childhood type 1 diabetes.

METHODS: Children in the Swedish National Quality Register for Diabetes in Children were matched with control children from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Children were included whose mothers had data available on BMI in early pregnancy and gestational weight gain, giving a total of 16,179 individuals: 3231 children with type 1 diabetes and 12,948 control children.

RESULTS: Mothers of children with type 1 diabetes were more likely to be obese (9% [n = 292/3231] vs 7.7% [n = 991/12,948]; p = 0.02) and/or have diabetes themselves (2.8% [n = 90/3231] vs 0.8% [n = 108/12,948]; p < 0.001) compared with mothers of control children. Gestational weight gain did not differ significantly between the two groups of mothers. In mothers without diabetes, maternal obesity was a significant risk factor for type 1 diabetes in the offspring (p = 0.04). A child had an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes if the mother had been obese in early pregnancy (crude OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05, 1.38; adjusted OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.02, 1.36). Among children with type 1 diabetes (n = 3231) there was a difference (p < 0.001) in age at onset in relation to the mother's BMI. Among children in the oldest age group (15-19 years), there were more mothers who had been underweight during pregnancy, while in the youngest age group (0-4 years) the pattern was reversed.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Maternal obesity, in the absence of maternal diabetes, is a risk factor for type 1 diabetes in the offspring, and influences the age of onset of type 1 diabetes. This emphasises the importance of a normal maternal BMI to potentially decrease the incidence of type 1 diabetes.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
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publication status
epub
subject
in
Diabetologia
publisher
Springer Verlag
external identifiers
  • scopus:85032886698
ISSN
1432-0428
DOI
10.1007/s00125-017-4481-2
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
2e3c01af-09d2-4f3b-8192-419297e6403a
date added to LUP
2017-11-08 13:19:32
date last changed
2018-01-07 12:25:27
@article{2e3c01af-09d2-4f3b-8192-419297e6403a,
  abstract     = {<p>AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Genetic and environmental factors are believed to cause type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain on the subsequent risk of childhood type 1 diabetes.</p><p>METHODS: Children in the Swedish National Quality Register for Diabetes in Children were matched with control children from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Children were included whose mothers had data available on BMI in early pregnancy and gestational weight gain, giving a total of 16,179 individuals: 3231 children with type 1 diabetes and 12,948 control children.</p><p>RESULTS: Mothers of children with type 1 diabetes were more likely to be obese (9% [n = 292/3231] vs 7.7% [n = 991/12,948]; p = 0.02) and/or have diabetes themselves (2.8% [n = 90/3231] vs 0.8% [n = 108/12,948]; p &lt; 0.001) compared with mothers of control children. Gestational weight gain did not differ significantly between the two groups of mothers. In mothers without diabetes, maternal obesity was a significant risk factor for type 1 diabetes in the offspring (p = 0.04). A child had an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes if the mother had been obese in early pregnancy (crude OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05, 1.38; adjusted OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.02, 1.36). Among children with type 1 diabetes (n = 3231) there was a difference (p &lt; 0.001) in age at onset in relation to the mother's BMI. Among children in the oldest age group (15-19 years), there were more mothers who had been underweight during pregnancy, while in the youngest age group (0-4 years) the pattern was reversed.</p><p>CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Maternal obesity, in the absence of maternal diabetes, is a risk factor for type 1 diabetes in the offspring, and influences the age of onset of type 1 diabetes. This emphasises the importance of a normal maternal BMI to potentially decrease the incidence of type 1 diabetes.</p>},
  author       = {Lindell, Nina and Carlsson, Annelie and Josefsson, Ann and Samuelsson, Ulf},
  issn         = {1432-0428},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {11},
  publisher    = {Springer Verlag},
  series       = {Diabetologia},
  title        = {Maternal obesity as a risk factor for early childhood type 1 diabetes : a nationwide, prospective, population-based case-control study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-017-4481-2},
  year         = {2017},
}