Effects of Coherence and Correlations on Transport through Nanostructures
(2012) Abstract (Swedish)
 Popular Abstract in English
For several decades the electronic industry has developed towards smaller and smaller electronic components. The idea behind this
development is quite simple: Small components have faster response times, which enables faster devices.
Also, smaller components make it possible to decrease the size of the devices. A common example is today's mobile phones, that actually
are quite powerful computers. This development was predicted a long time ago by Gordon E. Moore in 1965.
Moore's law states that in integrated circuits the number of transistors doubles every second year, and so far the prediction is true.
A transistor can be viewed as the... (More)  Popular Abstract in English
For several decades the electronic industry has developed towards smaller and smaller electronic components. The idea behind this
development is quite simple: Small components have faster response times, which enables faster devices.
Also, smaller components make it possible to decrease the size of the devices. A common example is today's mobile phones, that actually
are quite powerful computers. This development was predicted a long time ago by Gordon E. Moore in 1965.
Moore's law states that in integrated circuits the number of transistors doubles every second year, and so far the prediction is true.
A transistor can be viewed as the electronic equivalent to the biological cell, in that it is the smallest building block in electronic
circuits. A modern computer contains several billions of these small components.
They work as switches, where a channel can either conduct current or block it. This is the origin of zeros and ones
used in electronics. Intel's latest generation of transistors, named Ivy Bridge, measures 22 nm, which corresponds to less than
100 silicon atoms in length.
As the transistors shrink in size, also the current passing through them will decrease. At some point, already passed by today's
electronic industry, the current can no longer be viewed as continuous, but must instead be considered on the level of electrons,
i.e. the electronic charge is quantized. In the ultimate limit a transistor only allows one electron to pass at a time, a so called
single electron transistor. Such devices can be built using nanoelectronics. One possible implementation is quantum dots.
These objects, which can be thought of as artificial atoms, are small regions in space where the electrons are confined.
An example of a quantum dot investigated in this thesis can be seen
in Fig.~1. Here a restricted region in space is formed between two metal stripes, source and drain, in a very small wire.
These wires are referred to as nanowires, and the one shown in the figure is made of indium antomonide (InSb).
Single electron transistors can also be manufactured using molecules, or even single atoms.
As a result of the quantized charge transport, the classical Ohm's law that states that the current is given by the bias
divided by the resistance I=V/R, no longer holds. One must instead use Quantum mechanics, which is the physical tool used in this thesis.
A central concept in Quantum mechanics is coherence. Coherence means that an electron can be in two different positions at the same time.
To understand this somewhat mind blowing concept one should think of the electron as a wave. Like a wave hitting a double slit, the electron
can pass through both openings at the same time. On the other side of the slit, the electron, like a wave, interferes
constructively or destructively with itself. This effect can be observed in e.g. quantum dots or molecules. In these there can be different
pathways, acting as slits, that the electron can use to when transported through such devices.
This effect, not present in classical electronics, allows us to construct better devices. One example considered in this thesis
is in the field of thermopower. Due to coherence, it is possible to construct quantum dots or molecules working as filters that only
allow electrons with a high temperature to pass. This allows for conversion of heat into electrical current, something that
would be very useful in today's industrialized world.
As approximately 90% of the worlds energy is generated by heat engines that use fossil fuels,
and these typically operate at 3040% efficiency,
roughly 15 terawatts of heat is constantly lost to the environment. (Less)  Abstract
 This dissertation deals with the effects of coherence and correlations on transport through nanostructures. Simulations are mainly performed using the second order von Neumann approach, a method capable of dealing with these effects in the presence of higher order tunneling. We see that such effects can result in various kinds of current suppression as well as efficient thermoelectric devices.
Furthermore, the second order von Neumann approach has been developed to enable noise calculations. A thorough investigation of the analytical properties of the approach has also been performed.
The thesis is based on the five papers listed below.
Paper I deals with the transport measurements... (More)  This dissertation deals with the effects of coherence and correlations on transport through nanostructures. Simulations are mainly performed using the second order von Neumann approach, a method capable of dealing with these effects in the presence of higher order tunneling. We see that such effects can result in various kinds of current suppression as well as efficient thermoelectric devices.
Furthermore, the second order von Neumann approach has been developed to enable noise calculations. A thorough investigation of the analytical properties of the approach has also been performed.
The thesis is based on the five papers listed below.
Paper I deals with the transport measurements of an InSb quantum dot and corresponding simulations. Of special interest was the discovery of a canyon of current suppression observed at the degeneracy of two different spinless dot states.
Paper II provides a theoretical more detailed description of the phenomena discussed in Paper I.
Paper III suggests how efficient highpower thermoelectric devices can be constructed using quantum interference of transport through twolevel systems.
Paper IV deals with current blockade effects that can be observed in systems with negative charging energy, e.g. dipolar systems.
Paper V analyzes the virtues of our second order von Neumann formalism in detail. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
http://lup.lub.lu.se/record/3051965
 author
 Karlström, Olov ^{LU}
 supervisor

 Andreas Wacker ^{LU}
 Peter Samuelsson ^{LU}
 opponent

 Professor Ratner, Mark A., Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, USA
 organization
 publishing date
 2012
 type
 Thesis
 publication status
 published
 subject
 keywords
 Fysicumarkivet A:2012:Karlström
 pages
 151 pages
 publisher
 Department of Physics, Lund University
 defense location
 Lecture hall F, Sölvegatan 14A, Lund
 defense date
 20121009 13:15
 ISBN
 9789174733761
 language
 English
 LU publication?
 yes
 id
 e27b31cd617b4d6d87bc52531a2d23ed (old id 3051965)
 date added to LUP
 20120911 12:49:57
 date last changed
 20160919 08:45:07
@phdthesis{e27b31cd617b4d6d87bc52531a2d23ed, abstract = {This dissertation deals with the effects of coherence and correlations on transport through nanostructures. Simulations are mainly performed using the second order von Neumann approach, a method capable of dealing with these effects in the presence of higher order tunneling. We see that such effects can result in various kinds of current suppression as well as efficient thermoelectric devices.<br/><br> <br/><br> Furthermore, the second order von Neumann approach has been developed to enable noise calculations. A thorough investigation of the analytical properties of the approach has also been performed.<br/><br> <br/><br> The thesis is based on the five papers listed below.<br/><br> <br/><br> Paper I deals with the transport measurements of an InSb quantum dot and corresponding simulations. Of special interest was the discovery of a canyon of current suppression observed at the degeneracy of two different spinless dot states.<br/><br> <br/><br> Paper II provides a theoretical more detailed description of the phenomena discussed in Paper I.<br/><br> <br/><br> Paper III suggests how efficient highpower thermoelectric devices can be constructed using quantum interference of transport through twolevel systems.<br/><br> <br/><br> Paper IV deals with current blockade effects that can be observed in systems with negative charging energy, e.g. dipolar systems.<br/><br> <br/><br> Paper V analyzes the virtues of our second order von Neumann formalism in detail.}, author = {Karlström, Olov}, isbn = {9789174733761}, keyword = {Fysicumarkivet A:2012:Karlström}, language = {eng}, pages = {151}, publisher = {Department of Physics, Lund University}, school = {Lund University}, title = {Effects of Coherence and Correlations on Transport through Nanostructures}, year = {2012}, }