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Studies on Potency and breadth of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV neutralizing antibody responses

Özkaya Sahin, Gülsen LU (2012) In Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series 2012:86.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in English

Thirty years after the discovery of HIV, the AIDS epidemic is still with us. While the incidence is declining globally and access to anti-retroviral therapy for low- and middle-income countries is improving, the number of new HIV infections is still high. Despite stubborn efforts to design viral immunogens, an effective formulation for the induction of broad and potent neutralizing antibody response has yet to be found. In this thesis, we tried to elucidate factors contributing to the elucitation of broad and potent virus neutralizing antibodies in an experimental monkey model. Moreover, we aimed to obtain clues to the understanding of the role humoral immunity in the benign course of HIV-2... (More)
Popular Abstract in English

Thirty years after the discovery of HIV, the AIDS epidemic is still with us. While the incidence is declining globally and access to anti-retroviral therapy for low- and middle-income countries is improving, the number of new HIV infections is still high. Despite stubborn efforts to design viral immunogens, an effective formulation for the induction of broad and potent neutralizing antibody response has yet to be found. In this thesis, we tried to elucidate factors contributing to the elucitation of broad and potent virus neutralizing antibodies in an experimental monkey model. Moreover, we aimed to obtain clues to the understanding of the role humoral immunity in the benign course of HIV-2 infection. This achieved by comparing plasma neutralizing antibody responses and the effect of complement on plasma antiviral activity in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected individuals living in Guinea-Bissau. We hope that our results may provide insights into the nature of broad and potent neutralizing humoral immune responses. (Less)
Abstract
Even though the relative contribution of neutralizing antibodies (Nab) to prevent progression to AIDS during HIV-1 infection is still unclear, the induction of broadly NAb directed against HIV-1 through vaccination is considered to represent an important goal for the development of HIV-1 vaccines. Factors contributing to the induction of NAb may include the strength and duration of antigenic stimulation, the preservation of CD4+ T and B cells, the conformation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env), and the evolution of Env during infection. To understand these relationships, the experimental model of pathogenic SIV infection in cynomolgus macaques and comparison of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in humans were used in this thesis.... (More)
Even though the relative contribution of neutralizing antibodies (Nab) to prevent progression to AIDS during HIV-1 infection is still unclear, the induction of broadly NAb directed against HIV-1 through vaccination is considered to represent an important goal for the development of HIV-1 vaccines. Factors contributing to the induction of NAb may include the strength and duration of antigenic stimulation, the preservation of CD4+ T and B cells, the conformation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env), and the evolution of Env during infection. To understand these relationships, the experimental model of pathogenic SIV infection in cynomolgus macaques and comparison of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in humans were used in this thesis.

In the macaque model we studied in parallel the appearance of NAb and evolution of Env. For the preservation of SIV-specific cellular immune responses, early anti-retroviral treatment was provided. The main finding from this study was that the macaques that controlled viral load after treatment discontinuation displayed limited virus population genetic diversity and divergence, and had an early broad NAb response. On the other hand, the macaques with no or transient control of viremia showed greater virus diversity and divergence, and potent NAb response during the early period of infection. We propose that the early phase of viral evolution and the antigenic stimulation contributes to the development of NAb and control of viremia.

In humans, HIV-2 is known to be less transmissible and less pathogenic than HIV-1. Therefore, valuable insight can be gained into HIV immunopathogenesis from studies of HIV-2 cohorts with their high proportion of long-term non-progressors. In order to analyze differences in NAb in these infections, we compared, side by side, the breadth and potency of neutralizing activity (NAc) in plasma of HIV-1, HIV-2, and dually HIV-1/2 (HIV-D) infected individuals from Guinea-Bissau against HIV-1 and HIV-2 virus panels. The striking finding was that NAc in HIV-2 plasma against HIV-2 isolates was broader and more potent than NAc in HIV-1 plasma against HIV-1 isolates. Moreover, HIV-D positive individuals had broader and more potent NAc against HIV-2 isolates than HIV-1 isolates, indicating distinct immunogenicity and/or antigenicity of HIV-2 compared to HIV-1. We next analyzed the relative role of IgG and IgA for NAc in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-D plasma. Similarly to the plasma NAc, IgG neutralizing antibodies were found to be more potent in HIV-2 plasma against HIV-2 compared to IgG from HIV-1 plasma against HIV-1. Interestingly, while HIV-2 neutralizing IgA was frequently detected in plasma of HIV-2 infected individuals, HIV-1 neutralizing IgA could rarely be demonstrated in HIV-1 plasma. To study humoral immunity in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections further, we investigated the role of complement (C’) in antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation. Here results showed that the C’ effect on antiviral activity against HIV-2 was more pronounced in HIV-2 plasma than the C’ effect on HIV-1 plasma against HIV-1. Analysis of HIV-D plasma corroborated that the antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation was more efficient against HIV-2. This finding suggests that antibody binding to HIV-2 Env facilitates efficient use of C’. In summary, this thesis may provide insights into the nature of broad and potent neutralizing humoral immune responses. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor McKnight, Aine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry London, UK
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
HIV-1, HIV-2, SIV, envelope, neutralizing antibody, breadth, potency, IgG, IgA, complement, antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation, virus evolution, diversity, divergence
in
Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series
volume
2012:86
pages
126 pages
publisher
Virology unit, Dept of Laboratory Medicine
defense location
Segerfalksalen, BMC, Sölvegatan 17, Lund.
defense date
2012-10-20 09:00
ISSN
1652-8220
ISBN
978-91-87189-49-4
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
07008d32-22e6-49ca-bb1c-c3a656f1177b (old id 3123310)
date added to LUP
2012-10-10 09:11:08
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:45
@phdthesis{07008d32-22e6-49ca-bb1c-c3a656f1177b,
  abstract     = {Even though the relative contribution of neutralizing antibodies (Nab) to prevent progression to AIDS during HIV-1 infection is still unclear, the induction of broadly NAb directed against HIV-1 through vaccination is considered to represent an important goal for the development of HIV-1 vaccines. Factors contributing to the induction of NAb may include the strength and duration of antigenic stimulation, the preservation of CD4+ T and B cells, the conformation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env), and the evolution of Env during infection. To understand these relationships, the experimental model of pathogenic SIV infection in cynomolgus macaques and comparison of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in humans were used in this thesis. <br/><br>
In the macaque model we studied in parallel the appearance of NAb and evolution of Env. For the preservation of SIV-specific cellular immune responses, early anti-retroviral treatment was provided. The main finding from this study was that the macaques that controlled viral load after treatment discontinuation displayed limited virus population genetic diversity and divergence, and had an early broad NAb response. On the other hand, the macaques with no or transient control of viremia showed greater virus diversity and divergence, and potent NAb response during the early period of infection. We propose that the early phase of viral evolution and the antigenic stimulation contributes to the development of NAb and control of viremia. <br/><br>
In humans, HIV-2 is known to be less transmissible and less pathogenic than HIV-1. Therefore, valuable insight can be gained into HIV immunopathogenesis from studies of HIV-2 cohorts with their high proportion of long-term non-progressors. In order to analyze differences in NAb in these infections, we compared, side by side, the breadth and potency of neutralizing activity (NAc) in plasma of HIV-1, HIV-2, and dually HIV-1/2 (HIV-D) infected individuals from Guinea-Bissau against HIV-1 and HIV-2 virus panels. The striking finding was that NAc in HIV-2 plasma against HIV-2 isolates was broader and more potent than NAc in HIV-1 plasma against HIV-1 isolates. Moreover, HIV-D positive individuals had broader and more potent NAc against HIV-2 isolates than HIV-1 isolates, indicating distinct immunogenicity and/or antigenicity of HIV-2 compared to HIV-1. We next analyzed the relative role of IgG and IgA for NAc in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-D plasma. Similarly to the plasma NAc, IgG neutralizing antibodies were found to be more potent in HIV-2 plasma against HIV-2 compared to IgG from HIV-1 plasma against HIV-1. Interestingly, while HIV-2 neutralizing IgA was frequently detected in plasma of HIV-2 infected individuals, HIV-1 neutralizing IgA could rarely be demonstrated in HIV-1 plasma. To study humoral immunity in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections further, we investigated the role of complement (C’) in antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation. Here results showed that the C’ effect on antiviral activity against HIV-2 was more pronounced in HIV-2 plasma than the C’ effect on HIV-1 plasma against HIV-1. Analysis of HIV-D plasma corroborated that the antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation was more efficient against HIV-2. This finding suggests that antibody binding to HIV-2 Env facilitates efficient use of C’. In summary, this thesis may provide insights into the nature of broad and potent neutralizing humoral immune responses.},
  author       = {Özkaya Sahin, Gülsen},
  isbn         = {978-91-87189-49-4},
  issn         = {1652-8220},
  keyword      = {HIV-1,HIV-2,SIV,envelope,neutralizing antibody,breadth,potency,IgG,IgA,complement,antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation,virus evolution,diversity,divergence},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {126},
  publisher    = {Virology unit, Dept of Laboratory Medicine},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series},
  title        = {Studies on Potency and breadth of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV neutralizing antibody responses},
  volume       = {2012:86},
  year         = {2012},
}