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Breast cancer. Quality Assurance and Prognosis.

Grabau, Dorthe LU (2012) In Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series 2012:69.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Sammanfattning på svenska



Den svenska nationella cancerstategin från 2009 understryker patientperspektivet och fokus ligger på själva patientprocessen. Modern bröstcancerbehandling omfattar en mer individualiserad behandling med bröstbevarande kirurgi, diagnostik av portvaktskörteln, ett ökat användande av medicinsk terapi med cellgift, antihormon samt antikroppar i såväl förebyggande syfte som vid konstaterad spridning. En individuell behandling kräver dock en noggrann stadieindelning och klassning av tumören så att inte onödigtvis många patienter får behandling de inte kan ha nytta av. Ju fler som behandlas adjuvant desto fler får biverkningar där alla inte är lindriga eller... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Sammanfattning på svenska



Den svenska nationella cancerstategin från 2009 understryker patientperspektivet och fokus ligger på själva patientprocessen. Modern bröstcancerbehandling omfattar en mer individualiserad behandling med bröstbevarande kirurgi, diagnostik av portvaktskörteln, ett ökat användande av medicinsk terapi med cellgift, antihormon samt antikroppar i såväl förebyggande syfte som vid konstaterad spridning. En individuell behandling kräver dock en noggrann stadieindelning och klassning av tumören så att inte onödigtvis många patienter får behandling de inte kan ha nytta av. Ju fler som behandlas adjuvant desto fler får biverkningar där alla inte är lindriga eller försumbara.

Denna avhandling berör frågor kring bröstcancerns prognos, spridning till lymfkörtlar samt hur arbetet på patologen skall bedrivas för säkra och snabba svar på alla de parametrar som krävs för rekommendation av rätt behandling.

Fynden i avhandlingen visar att även en minimal spridning till lymfkörtlar i armhålan påverkar prognosen negativt. Sättet på vilket portvakten undersöks är väsentligt och arbete II visar att relativt täta snitt genom hela körteln krävs och att man inte bara färgar snitten med rutinfärger utan även använder antikroppsfärgningar. I samband med snabbundersökning vid operation av portvaktskörteln upptäcks inte alltid spridningen och för närvarande diskuteras om dessa patienter (med falskt negativt svar) rutinmässigt måste genomgå ytterligare en operation, för risk att fler körtlar är angripna. Arbete III visar att screeningsupptäckta cancrar med minimal spridning till lymfkörtlarna nästan aldrig har fler sjuka körtlar än portvakten varför dessa bör kunna slippa en onödig operation. I sista arbetet visas att det finns en viss skillnad mellan de kommersiella produkter för bestämning av hormonreceptorstatus (östrogen). Detta kan påverka bedömningen av vilken terapi patienten rekommenderas. Bröstcancer patientprocessen ställer stora krav på patologen för snabb och säker diagnostik vilket driver fram en omorganisation internt för kvalitetssäkring med standardisering, specialisering, inte bara med bröstpatologer utan även de biomedicinska analytikerna. Man arbetar numer i team och alla ingående kan därmed få ett bättre helhetsperspektiv från det att provet anländer tills att svaret avgår. (Less)
Abstract
Abstract



Background. The Swedish national cancer strategy programme published in 2009 emphasises the patient perspective and focuses on the patient process. Over the years the different modalities in breast cancer treatment are changing position, making accurate diagnosis and quality assurance in breast pathology even more important than before.



Aims. The aim of paper I was to examine overall survival in women with micrometastases in relation to node-negative women. In paper II four different routine methods for the pathological work-up of frozen section negative sentinel nodes (SN) were compared to find the method showing the largest fraction of patients with small deposits in SNs, in order to... (More)
Abstract



Background. The Swedish national cancer strategy programme published in 2009 emphasises the patient perspective and focuses on the patient process. Over the years the different modalities in breast cancer treatment are changing position, making accurate diagnosis and quality assurance in breast pathology even more important than before.



Aims. The aim of paper I was to examine overall survival in women with micrometastases in relation to node-negative women. In paper II four different routine methods for the pathological work-up of frozen section negative sentinel nodes (SN) were compared to find the method showing the largest fraction of patients with small deposits in SNs, in order to achieve the highest possible confidence in the negative status. In paper III the aim was to determine whether screening status influences the proportion of patients with additional positive nodes in the axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) specimen after the SNs have been diagnosed with micrometastases. Paper IV deals with immunohistochemistry with the aim of comparing the prevalence of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients when the ER status was determined by three different antibodies and heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) methods in premenopausal stage II patients.



Material. In paper I the study cohort consisted of 6,959 women with T1-T3, N0-N1, M0 primary breast cancer aged below 75 years and registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Database from 1 January 1990 to 31 October 1994. The study cohort in paper II was a consecutive series of 1,576 women with a first primary operable breast cancer treated at the University Hospital of Lund from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2009, of whom 1,098 had sentinel node biopsy (SNB). In paper III the study cohort was 1,993 consecutive women with first primary unilateral breast cancer, of whom 1,458 had SNB, treated at Skåne University Hospital, Lund between 2001 and 2011. In paper IV ER status was assessed on tissue microarrays, with three different ER antibodies and HIER methods: 1D5 in citrate pH 6, SP1 in Tris pH 9 (n=390) and PharmDx in citrate pH 6 (n=361).

Results. Paper I showed in a multivariate analysis that women with micrometastases had a significantly higher risk of death than did node-negative women (adjusted relative risk = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.18–1.90) (p<0.01). The result of paper II was that a combination of teamwork and the addition of intensive IHC for cytokeratin (CK) at fixed levels resulted in 13% more patients with isolated tumour cells and micrometastases than if a method with step sections at fixed intervals were used. In paper III the results of a logistic regression analysis showed 5 times higher odds for further metastases in the ALND in patients with micrometastases in SNs when symptomatic presentation was compared with screen-detected breast cancer. The findings in paper IV were that the prevalence of ER-positivity was higher with SP1 (75% and 72%) compared with 1D5 (68% and 66%) and PharmDx (66% and 62%) at cut-offs of 1% and 10%, respectively. The repeatability was good for all antibodies and cut-offs with overall agreement ≥93%.



Conclusion. Patients with micrometastases detected in ALND have an inferior 10-year overall survival compared with node-negative patients. SN examination with step sections at fixed levels including CK at each level is important in ensuring that the node-negative group really is node-negative. Screen-detected breast cancer patients with micrometastases have 5-time lesser odds for additional metastases in the completion ALND compared with symptomatic patients, and are thereby candidates for the omission of completion ALND. The prevalence of ER-positive breast cancer patients is dependent on the antibody and HIER method. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Bergh, Jonas, Section for Oncology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
in
Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series
volume
2012:69
pages
45 pages
publisher
Department of Surgery, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University
defense location
Segerfalk Lecture Hall, Sölvegatan 17, BMC, Lund.
defense date
2012-11-02 13:00
ISSN
1652-8220
ISBN
978-91-87189-32-6
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
6c5ccb78-8f92-4dd4-aa83-73bb405ad7f1 (old id 3127728)
date added to LUP
2012-10-10 09:00:21
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:49
@phdthesis{6c5ccb78-8f92-4dd4-aa83-73bb405ad7f1,
  abstract     = {Abstract<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Background. The Swedish national cancer strategy programme published in 2009 emphasises the patient perspective and focuses on the patient process. Over the years the different modalities in breast cancer treatment are changing position, making accurate diagnosis and quality assurance in breast pathology even more important than before.<br/><br>
 <br/><br>
Aims. The aim of paper I was to examine overall survival in women with micrometastases in relation to node-negative women. In paper II four different routine methods for the pathological work-up of frozen section negative sentinel nodes (SN) were compared to find the method showing the largest fraction of patients with small deposits in SNs, in order to achieve the highest possible confidence in the negative status. In paper III the aim was to determine whether screening status influences the proportion of patients with additional positive nodes in the axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) specimen after the SNs have been diagnosed with micrometastases. Paper IV deals with immunohistochemistry with the aim of comparing the prevalence of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive patients when the ER status was determined by three different antibodies and heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) methods in premenopausal stage II patients.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Material. In paper I the study cohort consisted of 6,959 women with T1-T3, N0-N1, M0 primary breast cancer aged below 75 years and registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Database from 1 January 1990 to 31 October 1994. The study cohort in paper II was a consecutive series of 1,576 women with a first primary operable breast cancer treated at the University Hospital of Lund from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2009, of whom 1,098 had sentinel node biopsy (SNB). In paper III the study cohort was 1,993 consecutive women with first primary unilateral breast cancer, of whom 1,458 had SNB, treated at Skåne University Hospital, Lund between 2001 and 2011. In paper IV ER status was assessed on tissue microarrays, with three different ER antibodies and HIER methods: 1D5 in citrate pH 6, SP1 in Tris pH 9 (n=390) and PharmDx in citrate pH 6 (n=361). <br/><br>
Results. Paper I showed in a multivariate analysis that women with micrometastases had a significantly higher risk of death than did node-negative women (adjusted relative risk = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.18–1.90) (p&lt;0.01). The result of paper II was that a combination of teamwork and the addition of intensive IHC for cytokeratin (CK) at fixed levels resulted in 13% more patients with isolated tumour cells and micrometastases than if a method with step sections at fixed intervals were used. In paper III the results of a logistic regression analysis showed 5 times higher odds for further metastases in the ALND in patients with micrometastases in SNs when symptomatic presentation was compared with screen-detected breast cancer. The findings in paper IV were that the prevalence of ER-positivity was higher with SP1 (75% and 72%) compared with 1D5 (68% and 66%) and PharmDx (66% and 62%) at cut-offs of 1% and 10%, respectively. The repeatability was good for all antibodies and cut-offs with overall agreement ≥93%.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Conclusion. Patients with micrometastases detected in ALND have an inferior 10-year overall survival compared with node-negative patients. SN examination with step sections at fixed levels including CK at each level is important in ensuring that the node-negative group really is node-negative. Screen-detected breast cancer patients with micrometastases have 5-time lesser odds for additional metastases in the completion ALND compared with symptomatic patients, and are thereby candidates for the omission of completion ALND. The prevalence of ER-positive breast cancer patients is dependent on the antibody and HIER method.},
  author       = {Grabau, Dorthe},
  isbn         = {978-91-87189-32-6},
  issn         = {1652-8220},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {45},
  publisher    = {Department of Surgery, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral Dissertation Series},
  title        = {Breast cancer. Quality Assurance and Prognosis.},
  volume       = {2012:69},
  year         = {2012},
}