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Aerosol elemental concentrations in the tropopause region from intercontinental flights with the Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) platform

Papaspiropoulos, Giorgos LU ; Martinsson, Bengt LU ; Zahn, A; Brenninkmeijer, C A M; Hermann, M; Heintzenberg, J; Fischer, H and van Velthoven, P F J (2002) In JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES 107(D23).
Abstract
This study with the Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) platform investigates the aerosol elemental concentrations at 9-11 km altitude in the northern hemisphere. Measurements from 31 intercontinental flights over a 2-year period between Germany and Sri Lanka/Maldives in the Indian Ocean are presented. Aerosol samples were collected with an impaction technique and were analyzed for the concentration of 18 elements using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Additional measurements of particle number concentrations, ozone and carbon monoxide concentrations, and meteorological modeling were included in the interpretation of the aerosol elemental concentrations. Particulate... (More)
This study with the Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) platform investigates the aerosol elemental concentrations at 9-11 km altitude in the northern hemisphere. Measurements from 31 intercontinental flights over a 2-year period between Germany and Sri Lanka/Maldives in the Indian Ocean are presented. Aerosol samples were collected with an impaction technique and were analyzed for the concentration of 18 elements using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Additional measurements of particle number concentrations, ozone and carbon monoxide concentrations, and meteorological modeling were included in the interpretation of the aerosol elemental concentrations. Particulate sulphur was found to be by far the most abundant element. Its upper tropospheric concentration increased, on average, by a factor of 2 from the tropics to midlatitudes, with another factor 2 higher concentrations in the lowermost stratosphere over midlatitudes. Correlation patterns and source profiles suggest contributions from crustal sources and biomass burning, but not from meteor ablation. Coinciding latitudinal gradients in particulate sulphur concentrations and emissions suggest that fossil fuel combustion is an important source of the aerosol in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere. The measurements indicate aerosol transport along isentropic surfaces across the tropopause into the lowermost stratosphere. As a result of the prolonged residence time, ageing via oxidation of sulphur dioxide in the lowermost stratosphere was found to be a likely high-altitude, strong source that, along with downward transport of stratospheric air, could explain the vertical gradient of particulate sulphur mass concentration around the extratropical tropopause. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
elemental, upper troposphere, composition, lowermost stratosphere, aerosol
in
JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES
volume
107
issue
D23
publisher
Wiley-Blackwell
external identifiers
  • wos:000181054600011
ISSN
0747-7309
DOI
10.1029/2002JD002344
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
2830acd0-3c90-421d-927b-0a00f811a2c4 (old id 318206)
date added to LUP
2007-11-02 15:25:28
date last changed
2016-11-18 12:48:47
@article{2830acd0-3c90-421d-927b-0a00f811a2c4,
  abstract     = {This study with the Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) platform investigates the aerosol elemental concentrations at 9-11 km altitude in the northern hemisphere. Measurements from 31 intercontinental flights over a 2-year period between Germany and Sri Lanka/Maldives in the Indian Ocean are presented. Aerosol samples were collected with an impaction technique and were analyzed for the concentration of 18 elements using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Additional measurements of particle number concentrations, ozone and carbon monoxide concentrations, and meteorological modeling were included in the interpretation of the aerosol elemental concentrations. Particulate sulphur was found to be by far the most abundant element. Its upper tropospheric concentration increased, on average, by a factor of 2 from the tropics to midlatitudes, with another factor 2 higher concentrations in the lowermost stratosphere over midlatitudes. Correlation patterns and source profiles suggest contributions from crustal sources and biomass burning, but not from meteor ablation. Coinciding latitudinal gradients in particulate sulphur concentrations and emissions suggest that fossil fuel combustion is an important source of the aerosol in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere. The measurements indicate aerosol transport along isentropic surfaces across the tropopause into the lowermost stratosphere. As a result of the prolonged residence time, ageing via oxidation of sulphur dioxide in the lowermost stratosphere was found to be a likely high-altitude, strong source that, along with downward transport of stratospheric air, could explain the vertical gradient of particulate sulphur mass concentration around the extratropical tropopause.},
  author       = {Papaspiropoulos, Giorgos and Martinsson, Bengt and Zahn, A and Brenninkmeijer, C A M and Hermann, M and Heintzenberg, J and Fischer, H and van Velthoven, P F J},
  issn         = {0747-7309},
  keyword      = {elemental,upper troposphere,composition,lowermost stratosphere,aerosol},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {D23},
  publisher    = {Wiley-Blackwell},
  series       = {JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES},
  title        = {Aerosol elemental concentrations in the tropopause region from intercontinental flights with the Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) platform},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002344},
  volume       = {107},
  year         = {2002},
}