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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy

Klionsky, Daniel J.; Abdalla, Fabio C.; Abeliovich, Hagai; Abraham, Robert T.; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Adeli, Khosrow; Agholme, Lotta; Agnello, Maria; Agostinis, Patrizia and Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A., et al. (2012) In Autophagy 8(4). p.445-544
Abstract
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic... (More)
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field. (Less)
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Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
autolysosome, autophagosome, flux, LC3, lysosome, phagophore, stress, vacuole
in
Autophagy
volume
8
issue
4
pages
445 - 544
publisher
Landes Bioscience
external identifiers
  • wos:000305403400002
  • scopus:84862295360
ISSN
1554-8635
DOI
10.4161/auto.19496
language
English
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yes
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1941550c-fa31-428d-9646-95702963e4f6 (old id 3188191)
date added to LUP
2012-12-03 07:08:33
date last changed
2017-11-12 03:00:53
@article{1941550c-fa31-428d-9646-95702963e4f6,
  abstract     = {In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.},
  author       = {Klionsky, Daniel J. and Abdalla, Fabio C. and Abeliovich, Hagai and Abraham, Robert T. and Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham and Adeli, Khosrow and Agholme, Lotta and Agnello, Maria and Agostinis, Patrizia and Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A. and Ahn, Hyung Jun and Ait-Mohamed, Ouardia and Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane and Akematsu, Takahiko and Akira, Shizuo and Al-Younes, Hesham M. and Al-Zeer, Munir A. and Albert, Matthew L. and Albin, Roger L. and Alegre-Abarrategui, Javier and Aleo, Maria Francesca and Alirezaei, Mehrdad and Almasan, Alexandru and Almonte-Becerril, Maylin and Amano, Atsuo and Amaravadi, Ravi and Amarnath, Shoba and Amer, Amal O. and Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie and Anantharam, Vellareddy and Ann, David K. and Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra and Aoki, Hiroshi and Apostolova, Nadezda and Arancia, Giuseppe and Aris, John P. and Asanuma, Katsuhiko and Asare, Nana Y. O. and Ashida, Hisashi and Askanas, Valerie and Askew, David S. and Auberger, Patrick and Baba, Misuzu and Backues, Steven K. and Baehrecke, Eric H. and Bahr, Ben A. and Bai, Xue-Yuan and Bailly, Yannick and Baiocchi, Robert and Baldini, Giulia and Balduini, Walter and Ballabio, Andrea and Bamber, Bruce A. and Bampton, Edward T. W. and Banhegyi, Gabor and Bartholomew, Clinton R. and Bassham, Diane C. and Bast, Robert C. and Batoko, Henri and Bay, Boon-Huat and Beau, Isabelle and Bechet, Daniel M. and Begley, Thomas J. and Behl, Christian and Behrends, Christian and Bekri, Soumeya and Bellaire, Bryan and Bendall, Linda J. and Benetti, Luca and Berliocchi, Laura and Bernardi, Henri and Bernassola, Francesca and Besteiro, Sebastien and Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid and Bi, Xiaoning and Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine and Blum, Janice S. and Boise, Lawrence H. and Bonaldo, Paolo and Boone, David L. and Bornhauser, Beat C. and Bortoluci, Karina R. and Bossis, Ioannis and Bost, Frederic and Bourquin, Jean-Pierre and Boya, Patricia and Boyer-Guittaut, Michael and Bozhkov, Peter V. and Brady, Nathan R. and Brancolini, Claudio and Brech, Andreas and Brenman, Jay E. and Brennand, Ana and Bresnick, Emery H. and Brest, Patrick and Bridges, Dave and Bristol, Molly L. and Brookes, Paul S. and Brown, Eric J. and Brumell, John H. and Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola and Brunk, Ulf T. and Bulman, Dennis E. and Bultman, Scott J. and Bultynck, Greet and Burbulla, Lena F. and Bursch, Wilfried and Butchar, Jonathan P. and Buzgariu, Wanda and Bydlowski, Sergio P. and Cadwell, Ken and Cahova, Monika and Cai, Dongsheng and Cai, Jiyang and Cai, Qian and Calabretta, Bruno and Calvo-Garrido, Javier and Camougrand, Nadine and Campanella, Michelangelo and Campos-Salinas, Jenny and Candi, Eleonora and Cao, Lizhi and Caplan, Allan B. and Carding, Simon R. and Cardoso, Sandra M. and Carew, Jennifer S. and Carlin, Cathleen R. and Carmignac, Virginie and Carneiro, Leticia A. M. and Carra, Serena and Caruso, Rosario A. and Casari, Giorgio and Casas, Caty and Castino, Roberta and Cebollero, Eduardo and Cecconi, Francesco and Celli, Jean and Chaachouay, Hassan and Chae, Han-Jung and Chai, Chee-Yin and Chan, David C. and Chan, Edmond Y. and Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung and Che, Chi-Ming and Chen, Ching-Chow and Chen, Guang-Chao and Chen, Guo-Qiang and Chen, Min and Chen, Quan and Chen, Steve S. -L. and Chen, WenLi and Chen, Xi and Chen, Xiangmei and Chen, Xiequn and Chen, Ye-Guang and Chen, Yingyu and Chen, Yongqiang and Chen, Yu-Jen and Chen, Zhixiang and Cheng, Alan and Cheng, Christopher H. K. and Cheng, Yan and Cheong, Heesun and Cheong, Jae-Ho and Cherry, Sara and Chess-Williams, Russ and Cheung, Zelda H. and Chevet, Eric and Chiang, Hui-Ling and Chiarelli, Roberto and Chiba, Tomoki and Chin, Lih-Shen and Chiou, Shih-Hwa and Chisari, Francis V. and Cho, Chi Hin and Cho, Dong-Hyung and Choi, Augustine M. K. and Choi, DooSeok and Choi, Kyeong Sook and Choi, Mary E. and Chouaib, Salem and Choubey, Divaker and Choubey, Vinay and Chu, Charleen T. and Chuang, Tsung-Hsien and Chueh, Sheau-Huei and Chun, Taehoon and Chwae, Yong-Joon and Chye, Mee-Len and Ciarcia, Roberto and Ciriolo, Maria R. and Clague, Michael J. and Clark, Robert S. B. and Clarke, Peter G. H. and Clarke, Robert and Codogno, Patrice and Coller, Hilary A. and Colombo, Maria I. and Comincini, Sergio and Condello, Maria and Condorelli, Fabrizio and Cookson, Mark R. and Coppens, Graham H. Coombs Isabelle and Corbalan, Ramon and Cossart, Pascale and Costelli, Paola and Costes, Safia and Coto-Montes, Ana and Couve, Eduardo and Coxon, Fraser P. and Cregg, James M. and Crespo, Jose L. and Cronje, Marianne J. and Cuervo, Ana Maria and Cullen, Joseph J. and Czaja, Mark J. and D'Amelio, Marcello and Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette and Davids, Lester M. and Davies, Faith E. and De Felici, Massimo and de Groot, John F. and de Haan, Cornelis A. M. and De Martino, Luisa and De Milito, Angelo and De Tata, Vincenzo and Debnath, Jayanta and Degterev, Alexei and Dehay, Benjamin and Delbridge, Lea M. D. and Demarchi, Francesca and Deng, Yi Zhen and Dengjel, Joen and Dent, Paul and Denton, Donna and Deretic, Vojo and Desai, Shyamal D. and Devenish, Rodney J. and Di Gioacchino, Mario and Di Paolo, Gilbert and Di Pietro, Chiara and Diaz-Araya, Guillermo and Diaz-Laviada, Ines and Diaz-Meco, Maria T. and Diaz-Nido, Javier and Dikic, Ivan and Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P. and Ding, Wen-Xing and Distelhorst, Clark W. and Diwan, Abhinav and Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan and Dokudovskaya, Svetlana and Dong, Zheng and Dorsey, Frank C. and Dosenko, Victor and Dowling, James J. and Doxsey, Stephen and Dreux, Marlene and Drew, Mark E. and Duan, Qiuhong and Duchosal, Michel A. and Duff, Karen and Dugail, Isabelle and Durbeej-Hjalt, Madeleine and Duszenko, Michael and Edelstein, Charles L. and Edinger, Aimee L. and Egea, Gustavo and Eichinger, Ludwig and Eissa, N. Tony and Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan and El-Deiry, Wafik S. and Elazar, Zvulun and Elgendy, Mohamed and Ellerby, Lisa M. and Eng, Kai Er and Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart and Engelender, Simone and Erenpreisa, Jekaterina and Escalante, Ricardo and Esclatine, Audrey and Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa and Espert, Lucile and Espina, Virginia and Fan, Huizhou and Fan, Jia and Fan, Qi-Wen and Fan, Zhen and Fang, Shengyun and Fang, Yongqi and Fanto, Manolis and Fanzani, Alessandro and Farkas, Thomas and Farre, Jean-Claude and Faure, Mathias and Fechheimer, Marcus and Feng, Carl G. and Feng, Jian and Feng, Qili and Feng, Youji and Fesues, Laszlo and Feuer, Ralph and Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E. and Fimia, Gian Maria and Fingar, Diane C. and Finkbeiner, Steven and Finkel, Toren and Finley, Kim D. and Fiorito, Filomena and Fisher, Edward A. and Fisher, Paul B. and Flajolet, Marc and Florez-McClure, Maria L. and Florio, Salvatore and Fon, Edward A. and Fornai, Francesco and Fortunato, Franco and Fotedar, Rati and Fowler, Daniel H. and Fox, Howard S. and Franco, Rodrigo and Frankel, Lisa B. and Fransen, Marc and Fuentes, Jose M. and Fueyo, Juan and Fujii, Jun and Fujisaki, Kozo and Fujita, Eriko and Fukuda, Mitsunori and Furukawa, Ruth H. and Gaestel, Matthias and Gailly, Philippe and Gajewska, Malgorzata and Galliot, Brigitte and Galy, Vincent and Ganesh, Subramaniam and Ganetzky, Barry and Ganley, Ian G. and Gao, Fen-Biao and Gao, George F. and Gao, Jinming and Garcia, Lorena and Garcia-Manero, Guillermo and Garcia-Marcos, Mikel and Garmyn, Marjan and Gartel, Andrei L. and Gatti, Evelina and Gautel, Mathias and Gawriluk, Thomas R. and Gegg, Matthew E. and Geng, Jiefei and Germain, Marc and Gestwicki, Jason E. and Gewirtz, David A. and Ghavami, Saeid and Ghosh, Pradipta and Giammarioli, Anna M. and Giatromanolaki, Alexandra N. and Gibson, Spencer B. and Gilkerson, Robert W. and Ginger, Michael L. and Ginsberg, Henry N. and Golab, Jakub and Goligorsky, Michael S. and Golstein, Pierre and Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria and Goncu, Ebru and Gongora, Celine and Gonzalez, Claudio D. and Gonzalez, Ramon and Gonzalez-Estevez, Cristina and Gonzalez-Polo, Rosa Ana and Gonzalez-Rey, Elena and Gorbunov, Nikolai V. and Gorski, Sharon and Goruppi, Sandro and Gottlieb, Roberta A. and Gozuacik, Devrim and Granato, Giovanna Elvira and Grant, Gary D. and Green, Kim N. and Gregorc, Ales and Gros, Frederic and Grose, Charles and Grunt, Thomas W. and Gual, Philippe and Guan, Jun-Lin and Guan, Kun-Liang and Guichard, Sylvie M. and Gukovskaya, Anna S. and Gukovsky, Ilya and Gunst, Jan and Gustafsson, Asa B. and Halayko, Andrew J. and Hale, Amber N. and Halonen, Sandra K. and Hamasaki, Maho and Han, Feng and Han, Ting and Hancock, Michael K. and Hansen, Malene and Harada, Hisashi and Harada, Masaru and Hardt, Stefan E. and Harper, J. Wade and Harris, Adrian L. and Harris, James and Harris, Steven D. and Hashimoto, Makoto and Haspel, Jeffrey A. and Hayashi, Shin-ichiro and Hazelhurst, Lori A. and He, Congcong and He, You-Wen and Hebert, Marie-Josee and Heidenreich, Kim A. and Helfrich, Miep H. and Helgason, Gudmundur V. and Henske, Elizabeth P. and Herman, Brian and Herman, Paul K. and Hetz, Claudio and Hilfiker, Sabine and Hill, Joseph A. and Hocking, Lynne J. and Hofman, Paul and Hofmann, Thomas G. and Hoehfeld, Joerg and Holyoake, Tessa L. and Hong, Ming-Huang and Hood, David A. and Hotamisligil, Goekhan S. and Houwerzijl, Ewout J. and Hoyer-Hansen, Maria and Hu, Bingren and Hu, Chien-An A. and Hu, Hong-Ming and Hua, Ya and Huang, Canhua and Huang, Ju and Huang, Shengbing and Huang, Wei-Pang and Huber, Tobias B. and Huh, Won-Ki and Hung, Tai-Ho and Hupp, Ted R. and Hur, Gang Min and Hurley, James B. and Hussain, Sabah N. A. and Hussey, Patrick J. and Hwang, Jung Jin and Hwang, Seungmin and Ichihara, Atsuhiro and Ilkhanizadeh, Shirin and Inoki, Ken and Into, Takeshi and Iovane, Valentine and Iovanna, Juan L. and Ip, Nancy Y. and Isaka, Yoshitaka and Ishida, Hiroyuki and Isidoro, Ciro and Isobe, Ken-ichi and Iwasaki, Akiko and Izquierdo, Marta and Izumi, Yotaro and Jaakkola, Panu M. and Jaattela, Marja and Jackson, George R. and Jackson, William T. and Janji, Bassam and Jendrach, Marina and Jeon, Ju-Hong and Jeung, Eui-Bae and Jiang, Hong and Jiang, Hongchi and Jiang, Jean X. and Jiang, Ming and Jiang, Qing and Jiang, Xuejun and Jiang, Xuejun and Jimenez, Alberto and Jin, Meiyan and Jin, Shengkan and Joe, Cheol O. and Johansen, Terje and Johnson, Daniel E. and Johnson, Gail V. W. and Jones, Nicola L. and Joseph, Bertrand and Joseph, Suresh K. and Joubert, Annie M. and Juhasz, Gabor and Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne and Jung, Chang Hwa and Jung, Yong-Keun and Kaarniranta, Kai and Kaasik, Allen and Kabuta, Tomohiro and Kadowaki, Motoni and Kagedal, Katarina and Kamada, Yoshiaki and Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O. and Kampinga, Harm H. and Kanamori, Hiromitsu and Kang, Chanhee and Kang, Khong Bee and Kang, Kwang Il and Kang, Rui and Kang, Yoon-A and Kanki, Tomotake and Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi and Kanno, Haruo and Kanthasamy, Anumantha G. and Kanthasamy, Arthi and Karantza, Vassiliki and Kaushal, Gur P. and Kaushik, Susmita and Kawazoe, Yoshinori and Ke, Po-Yuan and Kehrl, John H. and Kelekar, Ameeta and Kerkhoff, Claus and Kessel, David H. and Khalil, Hany and Kiel, Jan A. K. W. and Kiger, Amy A. and Kihara, Akio and Kim, Deok Ryong and Kim, Do-Hyung and Kim, Dong-Hou and Kim, Eun-Kyoung and Kim, Hyung-Ryong and Kim, Jae-Sung and Kim, Jeong Hun and Kim, Jin Cheon and Kim, John K. and Kim, Peter K. and Kim, Seong Who and Kim, Yong-Sun and Kim, Yonghyun and Kimchi, Adi and Kimmelman, Alec C. and King, Jason S. and Kinsella, Timothy J. and Kirkin, Vladimir and Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A. and Kitamoto, Katsuhiko and Kitazato, Kaio and Klein, Ludger and Klimecki, Walter T. and Klucken, Jochen and Knecht, Erwin and Ko, Ben C. B. and Koch, Jan C. and Koga, Hiroshi and Koh, Jae-Young and Koh, Young Ho and Koike, Masato and Komatsu, Masaaki and Kominami, Eiki and Kong, Hee Jeong and Kong, Wei-Jia and Korolchuk, Viktor I. and Kotake, Yaichiro and Koukourakis, Michael I. and Flores, Juan B. Kouri and Kovacs, Attila L. and Kraft, Claudine and Krainc, Dimitri and Kraemer, Helmut and Kretz-Remy, Carole and Krichevsky, Anna M. and Kroemer, Guido and Krueger, Rejko and Krut, Oleg and Ktistakis, Nicholas T. and Kuan, Chia-Yi and Kucharczyk, Roza and Kumar, Ashok and Kumar, Raj and Kumar, Sharad and Kundu, Mondira and Kung, Hsing-Jien and Kurz, Tino and Kwon, Ho Jeong and La Spada, Albert R. and Lafont, Frank and Lamark, Trond and Landry, Jacques and Lane, Jon D. and Lapaquette, Pierre and Laporte, Jocelyn F. and Laszlo, Lajos and Lavandero, Sergio and Lavoie, Josee N. and Layfield, Robert and Lazo, Pedro A. and Le, Weidong and Le Cam, Laurent and Ledbetter, Daniel J. and Lee, Alvin J. X. and Lee, Byung-Wan and Lee, Gyun Min and Lee, Jongdae and Lee, Ju-Hyun and Lee, Michael and Lee, Myung-Shik and Lee, Sug Hyung and Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan and Legembre, Patrick and Legouis, Renaud and Lehmann, Michael and Lei, Huan-Yao and Lei, Qun-Ying and Leib, David A. and Leiro, Jose and Lemasters, John J. and Lemoine, Antoinette and Lesniak, Maciej S. and Lev, Dina and Levenson, Victor V. and Levine, Beth and Levy, Efrat and Li, Faqiang and Li, Jun-Lin and Li, Lian and Li, Sheng and Li, Weijie and Li, Xue-Jun and Li, Yan-bo and Li, Yi-Ping and Liang, Chengyu and Liang, Qiangrong and Liao, Yung-Feng and Liberski, Pawel P. and Lieberman, Andrew and Lim, Hyunjung J. and Lim, Kah-Leong and Lim, Kyu and Lin, Chiou-Feng and Lin, Fu-Cheng and Lin, Jian and Lin, Jiandie D. and Lin, Kui and Lin, Wan-Wan and Lin, Weei-Chin and Lin, Yi-Ling and Linden, Rafael and Lingor, Paul and Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer and Lisanti, Michael P. and Liton, Paloma B. and Liu, Bo and Liu, Chun-Feng and Liu, Kaiyu and Liu, Leyuan and Liu, Qiong A. and Liu, Wei and Liu, Young-Chau and Liu, Yule and Lockshin, Richard A. and Lok, Chun-Nam and Lonial, Sagar and Loos, Benjamin and Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel and Lopez-Otin, Carlos and Lossi, Laura and Lotze, Michael T. and Low, Peter and Lu, Binfeng and Lu, Bingwei and Lu, Bo and Lu, Zhen and Luciano, Frederic and Lukacs, Nicholas W. and Lund, Anders H. and Lynch-Day, Melinda A. and Ma, Yong and Macian, Fernando and MacKeigan, Jeff P. and Macleod, Kay F. and Madeo, Frank and Maiuri, Luigi and Maiuri, Maria Chiara and Malagoli, Davide and Malicdan, May Christine V. and Malorni, Walter and Man, Na and Mandelkow, Eva-Maria and Manon, Stephen and Manov, Irena and Mao, Kai and Mao, Xiang and Mao, Zixu and Marambaud, Philippe and Marazziti, Daniela and Marcel, Yves L. and Marchbank, Katie and Marchetti, Piero and Marciniak, Stefan J. and Marcondes, Mateus and Mardi, Mohsen and Marfe, Gabriella and Marino, Guillermo and Markaki, Maria and Marten, Mark R. and Martin, Seamus J. and Martinand-Mari, Camille and Martinet, Wim and Martinez-Vicente, Marta and Masini, Matilde and Matarrese, Paola and Matsuo, Saburo and Matteoni, Raffaele and Mayer, Andreas and Mazure, Nathalie M. and McConkey, David J. and McConnell, Melanie J. and McDermott, Catherine and McDonald, Christine and McInerney, Gerald M. and McKenna, Sharon L. and McLaughlin, BethAnn and McLean, Pamela J. and McMaster, Christopher R. and McQuibban, G. Angus and Meijer, Alfred J. and Meisler, Miriam H. and Melendez, Alicia and Melia, Thomas J. and Melino, Gerry and Mena, Maria A. and Menendez, Javier A. and Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S. and Menon, Manoj B. and Menzies, Fiona M. and Mercer, Carol A. and Merighi, Adalberto and Merry, Diane E. and Meschini, Stefania and Meyer, Christian G. and Meyer, Thomas F. and Miao, Chao-Yu and Miao, Jun-Ying and Michels, Paul A. M. and Michiels, Carine and Mijaljica, Dalibor and Milojkovic, Ana and Minucci, Saverio and Miracco, Clelia and Miranti, Cindy K. and Mitroulis, Ioannis and Miyazawa, Keisuke and Mizushima, Noboru and Mograbi, Baharia and Mohseni, Simin and Molero, Xavier and Mollereau, Bertrand and Mollinedo, Faustino and Momoi, Takashi and Monastyrska, Iryna and Monick, Martha M. and Monteiro, Mervyn J. and Moore, Michael N. and Mora, Rodrigo and Moreau, Kevin and Moreira, Paula I. and Moriyasu, Yuji and Moscat, Jorge and Mostowy, Serge and Mottram, Jeremy C. and Motyl, Tomasz and Moussa, Charbel E. -H. and Mueller, Sylke and Muenger, Karl and Muenz, Christian and Murphy, Leon O. and Murphy, Maureen E. and Musaro, Antonio and Mysorekar, Indira and Nagata, Eiichiro and Nagata, Kazuhiro and Nahimana, Aimable and Nair, Usha and Nakagawa, Toshiyuki and Nakahira, Kiichi and Nakano, Hiroyasu and Nakataogawa, Hitoshi and Nanjundan, Meera and Naqvi, Naweed I. and Narendra, Derek P. and Narita, Masashi and Navarro, Miguel and Nawrocki, Steffan T. and Nazarko, Taras Y. and Nemchenko, Andriy and Netea, Mihai G. and Neufeld, Thomas P. and Ney, Paul A. and Nezis, Ioannis P. and Nguyen, Huu Phuc and Nie, Daotai and Nishino, Ichizo and Nislow, Corey and Nixon, Ralph A. and Noda, Takeshi and Noegel, Angelika A. and Nogalska, Anna and Noguchi, Satoru and Notterpek, Lucia and Novak, Ivana and Nozaki, Tomoyoshi and Nukina, Nobuyuki and Nuernberger, Thorsten and Nyfeler, Beat and Obara, Keisuke and Oberley, Terry D. and Oddo, Salvatore and Ogawa, Michinaga and Ohashi, Toya and Okamoto, Koji and Oleinick, Nancy L. and Oliver, F. Javier and Olsen, Laura J. and Olsson, Stefan and Opota, Onya and Osborne, Timothy F. and Ostrander, Gary K. and Otsu, Kinya and Ou, Jing-hsiung James and Ouimet, Mireille and Overholtzer, Michael and Ozpolat, Bulent and Paganetti, Paolo and Pagnini, Ugo and Pallet, Nicolas and Palmer, Glen E. and Palumbo, Camilla and Pan, Tianhong and Panaretakis, Theocharis and Pandey, Udai Bhan and Papackova, Zuzana and Papassideri, Issidora and Paris, Irmgard and Park, Junsoo and Park, Ohkmae K. and Parys, Jan B. and Parzych, Katherine R. and Patschan, Susann and Patterson, Cam and Pattingre, Sophie and Pawelek, John M. and Peng, Jianxin and Perlmutter, David H. and Perrotta, Ida and Perry, George and Pervaiz, Shazib and Peter, Matthias and Peters, Godefridus J. and Petersen, Morten and Petrovski, Goran and Phang, James M. and Piacentini, Mauro and Pierre, Philippe and Pierrefite-Carle, Valerie and Pierron, Gerard and Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit and Piras, Antonio and Piri, Natik and Platanias, Leonidas C. and Poeggeler, Stefanie and Poirot, Marc and Poletti, Angelo and Poues, Christian and Pozuelo-Rubio, Mercedes and Praetorius-Ibba, Mette and Prasad, Anil and Prescott, Mark and Priault, Muriel and Produit-Zengaffinen, Nathalie and Progulske-Fox, Ann and Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula and Przedborski, Serge and Przyklenk, Karin and Puertollano, Rosa and Puyal, Julien and Qian, Shu-Bing and Qin, Liang and Qin, Zheng-Hong and Quaggin, Susan E. and Raben, Nina and Rabinowich, Hannah and Rabkin, Simon W. and Rahman, Irfan and Rami, Abdelhaq and Ramm, Georg and Randall, Glenn and Randow, Felix and Rao, V. Ashutosh and Rathmell, Jeffrey C. and Ravikumar, Brinda and Ray, Swapan K. and Reed, Bruce H. and Reed, John C. and Reggiori, Fulvio and Regnier-Vigouroux, Anne and Reichert, Andreas S. and Reiners, John J. and Reiter, Russel J. and Ren, Jun and Revuelta, Jose L. and Rhodes, Christopher J. and Ritis, Konstantinos and Rizzo, Elizete and Robbins, Jeffrey and Roberge, Michel and Roca, Hernan and Roccheri, Maria C. and Rocchi, Stephane and Rodemann, H. Peter and de Cordoba, Santiago Rodriguez and Rohrer, Baerbel and Roninson, Igor B. and Rosen, Kirill and Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M. and Rouis, Mustapha and Rouschop, Kasper M. A. and Rovetta, Francesca and Rubin, Brian P. and Rubinsztein, David C. and Ruckdeschel, Klaus and Rucker, Edmund B and Rudich, Assaf and Rudolf, Emil and Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson and Russo, Rossella and Rusten, Tor Erik and Ryan, Kevin M. and Ryter, Stefan W. and Sabatini, David M. and Sadoshima, Junichi and Saha, Tapas and Saitoh, Tatsuya and Sakagami, Hiroshi and Sakai, Yasuyoshi and Salekdeh, Ghasem Hoseini and Salomoni, Paolo and Salvaterra, Paul M. and Salvesen, Guy and Salvioli, Rosa and Sanchez, Anthony M. J. and Sanchez-Alcazar, Jose A. and Sanchez-Prieto, Ricardo and Sandri, Marco and Sankar, Uma and Sansanwal, Poonam and Santambrogio, Laura and Saran, Shweta and Sarkar, Sovan and Sarwal, Minnie and Sasakawa, Chihiro and Sasnauskiene, Ausra and Sass, Miklos and Sato, Ken and Sato, Miyuki and Schapira, Anthony H. V. and Scharl, Michael and Schaetzl, Hermann M. and Scheper, Wiep and Schiaffino, Stefano and Schneider, Claudio and Schneider, Marion E. and Schneider-Stock, Regine and Schoenlein, Patricia V. and Schorderet, Daniel F. and Schueller, Christoph and Schwartz, Gary K. and Scorrano, Luca and Sealy, Linda and Seglen, Per O. and Segura-Aguilar, Juan and Seiliez, Iban and Seleverstov, Oleksandr and Sell, Christian and Seo, Jong Bok and Separovic, Duska and Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi and Setoguchi, Takao and Settembre, Carmine and Shacka, John J. and Shanmugam, Mala and Shapiro, Irving M. and Shaulian, Eitan and Shaw, Reuben J. and Shelhamer, James H. and Shen, Han-Ming and Shen, Wei-Chiang and Sheng, Zu-Hang and Shi, Yang and Shibuya, Kenichi and Shidoji, Yoshihiro and Shieh, Jeng-Jer and Shih, Chwen-Ming and Shimada, Yohta and Shimizu, Shigeomi and Shintani, Takahiro and Shirihai, Orian S. and Shore, Gordon C. and Sibirny, Andriy A. and Sidhu, Stan B. and Sikorska, Beata and Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C. M. and Simmons, Alison and Simon, Anna Katharina and Simon, Hans-Uwe and Simone, Cristiano and Simonsen, Anne and Sinclair, David A. and Singh, Rajat and Sinha, Debasish and Sinicrope, Frank A. and Sirko, Agnieszka and Siu, Parco M. and Sivridis, Efthimios and Skop, Vojtech and Skulachev, Vladimir P. and Slack, Ruth S. and Smaili, Soraya S. and Smith, Duncan R. and Soengas, Maria S. and Soldati, Thierry and Song, Xueqin and Sood, Anil K. and Soong, Tuck Wah and Sotgia, Federica and Spector, Stephen A. and Spies, Claudia D. and Springer, Wolfdieter and Srinivasula, Srinivasa M. and Stefanis, Leonidas and Steffan, Joan S. and Stendel, Ruediger and Stenmark, Harald and Stephanou, Anastasis and Stern, Stephan T. and Sternberg, Cinthya and Stork, Bjoern and Stralfors, Peter and Subauste, Carlos S. and Sui, Xinbing and Sulzer, David and Sun, Jiaren and Sun, Shi-Yong and Sun, Zhi-Jun and Sung, Joseph J. Y. and Suzuki, Kuninori and Suzuki, Toshihiko and Swanson, Michele S. and Swanton, Charles and Sweeney, Sean T. and Sy, Lai-King and Szabadkai, Gyorgy and Tabas, Ira and Taegtmeyer, Heinrich and Tafani, Marco and Takacs-Vellai, Krisztina and Takano, Yoshitaka and Takegawa, Kaoru and Takemura, Genzou and Takeshita, Fumihiko and Talbot, Nicholas J. and Tan, Kevin S. W. and Tanaka, Keiji and Tanaka, Kozo and Tang, Daolin and Tang, Dingzhong and Tanida, Isei and Tannous, Bakhos A. and Tavernarakis, Nektarios and Taylor, Graham S. and Taylor, Gregory A. and Taylor, J. Paul and Terada, Lance S. and Terman, Alexei and Tettamanti, Gianluca and Thevissen, Karin and Thompson, Craig B. and Thorburn, Andrew and Thumm, Michael and Tian, FengFeng and Tian, Yuan and Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco and Tolkovsky, Aviva M. and Tomino, Yasuhiko and Toenges, Lars and Tooze, Sharon A. and Tournier, Cathy and Tower, John and Towns, Roberto and Trajkovic, Vladimir and Travassos, Leonardo H. and Tsai, Ting-Fen and Tschan, Mario P. and Tsubata, Takeshi and Tsung, Allan and Turk, Boris and Turner, Lorianne S. and Tyagi, Suresh C. and Uchiyama, Yasuo and Ueno, Takashi and Umekawa, Midori and Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika and Unni, Vivek K. and Vaccaro, Maira I. and Valente, Enza Maria and Van den Berghe, Greet and van der Klei, Ida J. and van Doorn, Wouter G. and van Dyk, Linda F. and van Egmond, Marjolein and van Grunsven, Leo A. and Vandenabeele, Peter and Vandenberghe, Wim P. and Vanhorebeek, Ilse and Vaquero, Eva C. and Velasco, Guillermo and Vellai, Tibor and Vicencio, Jose Miguel and Vierstra, Richard D. and Vila, Miquel and Vindis, Cecile and Viola, Giampietro and Viscomi, Maria Teresa and Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V. and von Haefen, Clarissa and Votruba, Marcela and Wada, Keiji and Wade-Martins, Richard and Walker, Cheryl L. and Walsh, Craig M. and Walter, Jochen and Wan, Xiang-Bo and Wang, Aimin and Wang, Chenguang and Wang, Dawei and Wang, Fan and Wang, Fen and Wang, Guanghui and Wang, Haichao and Wang, Hong-Gang and Wang, Horng-Dar and Wang, Jin and Wang, Ke and Wang, Mei and Wang, Richard C. and Wang, Xinglong and Wang, Xuejun and Wang, Ying-Jan and Wang, Yipeng and Wang, Zhen and Wang, Zhigang Charles and Wang, Zhinong and Wansink, Derick G. and Ward, Diane M. and Watada, Hirotaka and Waters, Sarah L. and Webster, Paul and Wei, Lixin and Weihl, Conrad C. and Weiss, William A. and Welford, Scott M. and Wen, Long-Ping and Whitehouse, Caroline A. and Whitton, J. Lindsay and Whitworth, Alexander J. and Wileman, Tom and Wiley, John W. and Wilkinson, Simon and Willbold, Dieter and Williams, Roger L. and Williamson, Peter R. and Wouters, Bradly G. and Wu, Chenghan and Wu, Dao-Cheng and Wu, William K. K. and Wyttenbach, Andreas and Xavier, Ramnik J. and Xi, Zhijun and Xia, Pu and Xiao, Gengfu and Xie, Zhiping and Xie, Zhonglin and Xu, Da-zhi and Xu, Jianzhen and Xu, Liang and Xu, Xiaolei and Yamamoto, Ai and Yamamoto, Akitsugu and Yamashina, Shunhei and Yamashita, Michiaki and Yan, Xianghua and Yanagida, Mitsuhiro and Yang, Dun-Sheng and Yang, Elizabeth and Yang, Jin-Ming and Yang, Shi Yu and Yang, Wannian and Yang, Wei Yuan and Yang, Zhifen and Yao, Meng-Chao and Yao, Tso-Pang and Yeganeh, Behzad and Yen, Wei-Lien and Yin, Jia-jing and Yin, Xiao-Ming and Yoo, Ook-Joon and Yoon, Gyesoon and Yoon, Seung-Yong and Yorimitsu, Tomohiro and Yoshikawa, Yuko and Yoshimori, Tamotsu and Yoshimoto, Kohki and You, Ho Jin and Youle, Richard J. and Younes, Anas and Yu, Li and Yu, Long and Yu, Seong-Woon and Yu, Wai Haung and Yuan, Zhi-Min and Yue, Zhenyu and Yun, Cheol-Heui and Yuzaki, Michisuke and Zabirnyk, Olga and Silva-Zacarin, Elaine and Zacks, David and Zacksenhaus, Eldad and Zaffaroni, Nadia and Zakeri, Zahra and Zeh III, Herbert J. and Zeitlin, Scott O. and Zhang, Hong and Zhang, Hui-Ling and Zhang, Jianhua and Zhang, Jing-Pu and Zhang, Lin and Zhang, Long and Zhang, Ming-Yong and Zhang, Xu Dong and Zhao, Mantong and Zhao, Yi-Fang and Zhao, Ying and Zhao, Zhizhuang J. and Zheng, Xiaoxiang and Zhivotovsky, Boris and Zhong, Qing and Zhou, Cong-Zhao and Zhu, Changlian and Zhu, Wei-Guo and Zhu, Xiao-Feng and Zhu, Xiongwei and Zhu, Yuangang and Zoladek, Teresa and Zong, Wei-Xing and Zorzano, Antonio and Zschocke, Juergen and Zuckerbraun, Brian},
  issn         = {1554-8635},
  keyword      = {autolysosome,autophagosome,flux,LC3,lysosome,phagophore,stress,vacuole},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {445--544},
  publisher    = {Landes Bioscience},
  series       = {Autophagy},
  title        = {Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/auto.19496},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2012},
}