Advanced

Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity

Travnicek, Pavel; Jersakova, Jana; Kubatova, Barbora; Krejcikova, Jana; Bateman, Richard M.; Lucanova, Magdalena; Krajnikova, Eva; Tesitelova, Tamara; Stipkova, Zuzana and Amardeilh, Jean-Pierre, et al. (2012) In Annals of Botany 110(5). p.977-986
Abstract
Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Most Gymnadenia populations... (More)
Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted 2 of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
, et al. (More)
(Less)
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Coexistence, contact zone, cytogeography, flow cytometry, fragrant, orchid, Gymnadenia, Orchidaceae, hybridization, mixed-ploidy population, polyploidy, sympatry, unreduced gametes
in
Annals of Botany
volume
110
issue
5
pages
977 - 986
publisher
Oxford University Press
external identifiers
  • wos:000309072000006
  • scopus:84866654169
ISSN
0305-7364
DOI
10.1093/aob/mcs171
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
6765c478-cdb9-4bbc-b6da-e907128f0b21 (old id 3189766)
date added to LUP
2012-12-04 14:36:31
date last changed
2017-04-09 03:01:36
@article{6765c478-cdb9-4bbc-b6da-e907128f0b21,
  abstract     = {Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted 2 of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture.},
  author       = {Travnicek, Pavel and Jersakova, Jana and Kubatova, Barbora and Krejcikova, Jana and Bateman, Richard M. and Lucanova, Magdalena and Krajnikova, Eva and Tesitelova, Tamara and Stipkova, Zuzana and Amardeilh, Jean-Pierre and Brzosko, Emilia and Jermakowicz, Edyta and Cabanne, Olivier and Durka, Walter and Efimov, Peter and Hedrén, Mikael and Hermosilla, Carlos E. and Kreutz, Karel and Kull, Tiiu and Tali, Kadri and Marchand, Olivier and Rey, Manel and Schiestl, Florian P. and Curn, Vladislav and Suda, Jan},
  issn         = {0305-7364},
  keyword      = {Coexistence,contact zone,cytogeography,flow cytometry,fragrant,orchid,Gymnadenia,Orchidaceae,hybridization,mixed-ploidy population,polyploidy,sympatry,unreduced gametes},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {977--986},
  publisher    = {Oxford University Press},
  series       = {Annals of Botany},
  title        = {Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcs171},
  volume       = {110},
  year         = {2012},
}