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The Bologna Stone: history's first persistent luminescent material

Lastusaari, Mika; Laamanen, Taneli; Malkamaki, Marja; Eskola, Kari O.; Kotlov, Aleksei; Carlson, Stefan LU ; Welter, Edmund; Brito, Hermi F.; Bettinelli, Marco and Jungner, Hogne, et al. (2012) In European Journal of Mineralogy 24(5). p.885-890
Abstract
In 1603, the Italian shoemaker Vincenzo Cascariolo found that a stone (baryte) from the outskirts of Bologna emitted light in the dark without any external excitation source. However, the calcination of the baryte was needed prior to this observation. The stone later named as the Bologna Stone was among the first luminescent materials and the first documented material to show persistent luminescence. The mechanism behind the persistent emission in this material has remained a mystery ever since. In this work, the Bologna Stone (BaS) was prepared from the natural baryte (Bologna, Italy) used by Cascariolo. Its properties, e. g. impurities (dopants) and their valences, luminescence, persistent luminescence and trap structure, were compared... (More)
In 1603, the Italian shoemaker Vincenzo Cascariolo found that a stone (baryte) from the outskirts of Bologna emitted light in the dark without any external excitation source. However, the calcination of the baryte was needed prior to this observation. The stone later named as the Bologna Stone was among the first luminescent materials and the first documented material to show persistent luminescence. The mechanism behind the persistent emission in this material has remained a mystery ever since. In this work, the Bologna Stone (BaS) was prepared from the natural baryte (Bologna, Italy) used by Cascariolo. Its properties, e. g. impurities (dopants) and their valences, luminescence, persistent luminescence and trap structure, were compared to those of the pure BaS materials doped with different (transition) metals (Cu, Ag, Pb) known to yield strong luminescence. The work was carried out by using different methods (XANES, TL, VUV-UV-vis luminescence, TGA-DTA, XPD). A plausible mechanism for the persistent luminescence from the Bologna Stone with Cu+ as the emitting species was constructed based on the results obtained. The puzzle of the Bologna Stone can thus be considered as resolved after some 400 years of studies. (Less)
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keywords
Persistent luminescence, Bologna Stone, baryte, copper, barium sulphide, XANES, thermoluminescence, thermogravimetry, differential thermal, analysis, X-ray powder diffraction
in
European Journal of Mineralogy
volume
24
issue
5
pages
885 - 890
publisher
E Schweizerbartsche Verlags
external identifiers
  • wos:000309049800013
  • scopus:84873039565
ISSN
1617-4011
DOI
10.1127/0935-1221/2012/0024-2224
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
a7e3b253-9f54-4fd1-a94e-30a6ce89aca0 (old id 3189849)
date added to LUP
2012-12-04 14:05:19
date last changed
2017-01-15 03:18:42
@article{a7e3b253-9f54-4fd1-a94e-30a6ce89aca0,
  abstract     = {In 1603, the Italian shoemaker Vincenzo Cascariolo found that a stone (baryte) from the outskirts of Bologna emitted light in the dark without any external excitation source. However, the calcination of the baryte was needed prior to this observation. The stone later named as the Bologna Stone was among the first luminescent materials and the first documented material to show persistent luminescence. The mechanism behind the persistent emission in this material has remained a mystery ever since. In this work, the Bologna Stone (BaS) was prepared from the natural baryte (Bologna, Italy) used by Cascariolo. Its properties, e. g. impurities (dopants) and their valences, luminescence, persistent luminescence and trap structure, were compared to those of the pure BaS materials doped with different (transition) metals (Cu, Ag, Pb) known to yield strong luminescence. The work was carried out by using different methods (XANES, TL, VUV-UV-vis luminescence, TGA-DTA, XPD). A plausible mechanism for the persistent luminescence from the Bologna Stone with Cu+ as the emitting species was constructed based on the results obtained. The puzzle of the Bologna Stone can thus be considered as resolved after some 400 years of studies.},
  author       = {Lastusaari, Mika and Laamanen, Taneli and Malkamaki, Marja and Eskola, Kari O. and Kotlov, Aleksei and Carlson, Stefan and Welter, Edmund and Brito, Hermi F. and Bettinelli, Marco and Jungner, Hogne and Holsa, Jorma},
  issn         = {1617-4011},
  keyword      = {Persistent luminescence,Bologna Stone,baryte,copper,barium sulphide,XANES,thermoluminescence,thermogravimetry,differential thermal,analysis,X-ray powder diffraction},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {885--890},
  publisher    = {E Schweizerbartsche Verlags},
  series       = {European Journal of Mineralogy},
  title        = {The Bologna Stone: history's first persistent luminescent material},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1127/0935-1221/2012/0024-2224},
  volume       = {24},
  year         = {2012},
}