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A toxicological and dermatological assessment of aryl alkyl alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients

Belsito, D.; Bickers, D.; Bruze, Magnus LU ; Calow, P.; Dagli, M. L.; Fryer, A. D.; Greim, H.; Miyachi, Y.; Saurath, J. H. and Sipes, I. G. (2012) In Food and Chemical Toxicology 50. p.52-99
Abstract
The aryl alkyl alcohol (AAA) fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of chemical structures with similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. The AAA fragrances demonstrate low acute and subchronic dermal and oral toxicity. No carcinogenicity in rats or mice was observed in 2-year chronic testing of benzyl alcohol or alpha-methylbenzyl alcohol: the latter did induce species and gender-specific renal adenomas in male rats at the high dose. There was no to little genotoxicity, mutagenicity, or clastogenicity in the mutagenic in vitro bacterial assays, and in vitro mammalian cell assays. All in vivo micronucleus assays were negative. NOAELs for maternal and developmental toxicity are far in excess of current human exposure levels. At... (More)
The aryl alkyl alcohol (AAA) fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of chemical structures with similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. The AAA fragrances demonstrate low acute and subchronic dermal and oral toxicity. No carcinogenicity in rats or mice was observed in 2-year chronic testing of benzyl alcohol or alpha-methylbenzyl alcohol: the latter did induce species and gender-specific renal adenomas in male rats at the high dose. There was no to little genotoxicity, mutagenicity, or clastogenicity in the mutagenic in vitro bacterial assays, and in vitro mammalian cell assays. All in vivo micronucleus assays were negative. NOAELs for maternal and developmental toxicity are far in excess of current human exposure levels. At concentrations likely to be encountered by consumers, AAA fragrance ingredients are non-irritating to the skin. The potential for eye irritation is minimal. With the exception of benzyl alcohol and to a lesser extent phenethyl and 2-phenoxyethyl AAA alcohols, human sensitization studies, diagnostic patch tests and human induction studies, indicate that AAA fragrance ingredients generally have no or low sensitization potential. Available data indicate that the potential for photosensitization is low. It is concluded that these materials would not present a safety concern at current levels of use as fragrance ingredients. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Fragrance ingredients, Aryl alkyl alcohols, Safety review
in
Food and Chemical Toxicology
volume
50
pages
52 - 99
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000309574800002
  • scopus:84865740513
ISSN
0278-6915
DOI
10.1016/j.fct.2011.10.042
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
55a5c771-5c3a-436d-8e40-a3f03b3496c0 (old id 3287808)
date added to LUP
2013-01-07 09:32:38
date last changed
2017-09-10 03:56:03
@article{55a5c771-5c3a-436d-8e40-a3f03b3496c0,
  abstract     = {The aryl alkyl alcohol (AAA) fragrance ingredients are a diverse group of chemical structures with similar metabolic and toxicity profiles. The AAA fragrances demonstrate low acute and subchronic dermal and oral toxicity. No carcinogenicity in rats or mice was observed in 2-year chronic testing of benzyl alcohol or alpha-methylbenzyl alcohol: the latter did induce species and gender-specific renal adenomas in male rats at the high dose. There was no to little genotoxicity, mutagenicity, or clastogenicity in the mutagenic in vitro bacterial assays, and in vitro mammalian cell assays. All in vivo micronucleus assays were negative. NOAELs for maternal and developmental toxicity are far in excess of current human exposure levels. At concentrations likely to be encountered by consumers, AAA fragrance ingredients are non-irritating to the skin. The potential for eye irritation is minimal. With the exception of benzyl alcohol and to a lesser extent phenethyl and 2-phenoxyethyl AAA alcohols, human sensitization studies, diagnostic patch tests and human induction studies, indicate that AAA fragrance ingredients generally have no or low sensitization potential. Available data indicate that the potential for photosensitization is low. It is concluded that these materials would not present a safety concern at current levels of use as fragrance ingredients. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Belsito, D. and Bickers, D. and Bruze, Magnus and Calow, P. and Dagli, M. L. and Fryer, A. D. and Greim, H. and Miyachi, Y. and Saurath, J. H. and Sipes, I. G.},
  issn         = {0278-6915},
  keyword      = {Fragrance ingredients,Aryl alkyl alcohols,Safety review},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {52--99},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Food and Chemical Toxicology},
  title        = {A toxicological and dermatological assessment of aryl alkyl alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.10.042},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2012},
}