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Energy balance and obesity : what are the main drivers?

Romieu, Isabelle; Dossus, Laure; Barquera, Simón; Blottière, Hervé M.; Franks, Paul W. LU ; Gunter, Marc; Hwalla, Nahla; Hursting, Stephen D.; Leitzmann, Michael and Margetts, Barrie, et al. (2017) In Cancer Causes and Control 28(3). p.247-258
Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. Methods: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Results: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake. Dietary patterns consistent with a traditional Mediterranean diet and other measures of diet quality can contribute to long-term weight control. Limiting... (More)

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. Methods: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Results: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake. Dietary patterns consistent with a traditional Mediterranean diet and other measures of diet quality can contribute to long-term weight control. Limiting consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has a particularly important role in weight control. Genetic factors alone cannot explain the global epidemic of obesity. However, genetic, epigenetic factors and the microbiota could influence individual responses to diet and physical activity. Conclusion: Energy intake that exceeds energy expenditure is the main driver of weight gain. The quality of the diet may exert its effect on energy balance through complex hormonal and neurological pathways that influence satiety and possibly through other mechanisms. The food environment, marketing of unhealthy foods and urbanization, and reduction in sedentary behaviors and physical activity play important roles. Most of the evidence comes from High Income Countries and more research is needed in LMICs.

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@article{349b42ce-f941-4381-bece-e382e33097cb,
  abstract     = {<p>Purpose: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. Methods: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Results: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake. Dietary patterns consistent with a traditional Mediterranean diet and other measures of diet quality can contribute to long-term weight control. Limiting consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has a particularly important role in weight control. Genetic factors alone cannot explain the global epidemic of obesity. However, genetic, epigenetic factors and the microbiota could influence individual responses to diet and physical activity. Conclusion: Energy intake that exceeds energy expenditure is the main driver of weight gain. The quality of the diet may exert its effect on energy balance through complex hormonal and neurological pathways that influence satiety and possibly through other mechanisms. The food environment, marketing of unhealthy foods and urbanization, and reduction in sedentary behaviors and physical activity play important roles. Most of the evidence comes from High Income Countries and more research is needed in LMICs.</p>},
  author       = {Romieu, Isabelle and Dossus, Laure and Barquera, Simón and Blottière, Hervé M. and Franks, Paul W. and Gunter, Marc and Hwalla, Nahla and Hursting, Stephen D. and Leitzmann, Michael and Margetts, Barrie and Nishida, Chizuru and Potischman, Nancy and Seidell, Jacob and Stepien, Magdalena and Wang, Youfa and Westerterp, Klaas and Winichagoon, Pattanee and Wiseman, Martin and Willett, Walter C and , },
  issn         = {0957-5243},
  keyword      = {Diet,Energy balance,Energy expenditure,Energy intake,Obesity,Satiety},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {03},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {247--258},
  publisher    = {Springer},
  series       = {Cancer Causes and Control},
  title        = {Energy balance and obesity : what are the main drivers?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-017-0869-z},
  volume       = {28},
  year         = {2017},
}