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I objektivitetens sken - en kritisk granskning av objektivitetsideal, objektivitetsanspråk och legitimeringsstrategier i diskurser om dömande i brottmål.

Bladini, Moa LU (2013)
Abstract (Swedish)
Den dömande verksamheten är en av samhällets mest ingripande former av maktutövning. För att allmänheten ska ha förtroende för denna verksamhet krävs att den framstår som objektiv och därmed legitim. Med utgångspunkt i olika typer av kritik, som förts fram inom såväl den massmediala debatten som den mer rättsinterna aktualiseras frågor om objektivitet och rättstillämpningens legitimitet. Författaren argumenterar för att den föreställning om objektivitet som präglar jurister och domare har betydelse för den tolkning de gör av rättsregler och av den verklighet som de möter i sin dagliga verksamhet och som reglerna ska tillämpas på.

I studien innefattas bland annat ett av standardverken om bevisvärdering. Här visar författaren hur... (More)
Den dömande verksamheten är en av samhällets mest ingripande former av maktutövning. För att allmänheten ska ha förtroende för denna verksamhet krävs att den framstår som objektiv och därmed legitim. Med utgångspunkt i olika typer av kritik, som förts fram inom såväl den massmediala debatten som den mer rättsinterna aktualiseras frågor om objektivitet och rättstillämpningens legitimitet. Författaren argumenterar för att den föreställning om objektivitet som präglar jurister och domare har betydelse för den tolkning de gör av rättsregler och av den verklighet som de möter i sin dagliga verksamhet och som reglerna ska tillämpas på.

I studien innefattas bland annat ett av standardverken om bevisvärdering. Här visar författaren hur beskrivningarna av den verklighet som ska bedömas och dömandet i sig präglas av ett positivistiskt objektivitetsideal, där både den som ska döma och den som ska dömas osynliggörs. Hon argumenterar för att detta bidrar till att dölja de gemensamma föreställningar och förgivettaganden om världen som jurister och domare har. I undersökningen inkluderas även domar. Författaren visar hur olika legitimeringsstrategier används i domarna, och hur dessa ger sken av objektivitet. Bland annat görs den rättsliga processen och de rättsliga aktörer, som är centrala för denna, osynliga. Därmed döljs deras ansvar för processerna.

Resultatet av undersökningen visar att det positivistiska objektivitetsidealet har en dominerande ställning. Det här, menar författaren, är ett av skälen till att vissa normer och värderingar, vilka i stor utsträckning är gemensamma för de personer som tolkar och tillämpar rättsreglerna, osynliggörs och framstår som normala, naturliga och nödvändiga. I stället för att präglas av ett objektivitetsideal där den som ska se, tolka och i slutändan döma, måste rannsaka sig själv och få syn på sina egna värderingar, döljs dessa i den positivistiska objektivitetens sken. (Less)
Abstract
The adjudication process is one of society’s most intrusive forms of power. To maintain the general public’s confidence in the judiciary, it is crucial that the judicial activities are perceived as being conducted objectively and hence legitimately. Criminal trials have been subjected to scrutiny and criticism of various kinds in the media as well as in internal debates within the legal discipline, this in turn, arise questions about objectivity and legitimacy of the enforcement of criminal law. In this thesis, the author argue that lawyers and judges understanding of objectivity is relevant to the interpretation they make of the law and of the reality that they face in their daily operations.

The study includes an analysis of a... (More)
The adjudication process is one of society’s most intrusive forms of power. To maintain the general public’s confidence in the judiciary, it is crucial that the judicial activities are perceived as being conducted objectively and hence legitimately. Criminal trials have been subjected to scrutiny and criticism of various kinds in the media as well as in internal debates within the legal discipline, this in turn, arise questions about objectivity and legitimacy of the enforcement of criminal law. In this thesis, the author argue that lawyers and judges understanding of objectivity is relevant to the interpretation they make of the law and of the reality that they face in their daily operations.

The study includes an analysis of a crucial part of the literature on evaluation of evidence. The analysis shows how parts of a human practice that is highly complex is described in a positivist-scientific tradition where the person judging and the person being judged are made invisible. The study also contains an analysis of judgments in aggravated assault cases. In the analysis of judgments the author shows how different legitimizing strategies are used, and contributes to the semblance of objectivity. What is striking in this part of the study is the complete lack of representation of the legal actors, given their central roles for the progress of the trial. The defence counsel, the prosecutor as well as the judges are completely erased in the judgments.

The conclusion of this study is that the positivist objectivity ideal has a strong position. The author argues that this is one of the reasons why certain norms and values, which to a large extent are common within the group of people that interprets and applies the laws and interprets the reality that the laws applies to, are made invisible and appears to be normal, natural and necessary. Instead of an objectivity ideal where the one that sees and interprets and ultimately judges must scrutinize her- or him self, and be able to see her or his own values, these are hidden in the semblance of the positivist objectivity. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Niemi, Johanna, Juridiska fakulteten, Helsingfors universitet
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Evaluation of evidence, Critical discourse analysis, Legal knowledge, Judging, Criminal trials, Objectivity, Procedural law, Processrätt
pages
420 pages
publisher
Makadam förlag
defense location
Pufendorfsalen, Juridiska institutionen, Lilla Gråbrödersgatan 3 C, Lund
defense date
2013-04-12 13:15
ISBN
978­-91­-7061-­126-­1
language
Swedish
LU publication?
yes
id
9d375a26-0c48-457c-a6e3-20dbac8859af (old id 3601319)
date added to LUP
2013-03-22 09:37:09
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:04
@phdthesis{9d375a26-0c48-457c-a6e3-20dbac8859af,
  abstract     = {The adjudication process is one of society’s most intrusive forms of power. To maintain the general public’s confidence in the judiciary, it is crucial that the judicial activities are perceived as being conducted objectively and hence legitimately. Criminal trials have been subjected to scrutiny and criticism of various kinds in the media as well as in internal debates within the legal discipline, this in turn, arise questions about objectivity and legitimacy of the enforcement of criminal law. In this thesis, the author argue that lawyers and judges understanding of objectivity is relevant to the interpretation they make of the law and of the reality that they face in their daily operations. <br/><br>
The study includes an analysis of a crucial part of the literature on evaluation of evidence. The analysis shows how parts of a human practice that is highly complex is described in a positivist-scientific tradition where the person judging and the person being judged are made invisible. The study also contains an analysis of judgments in aggravated assault cases. In the analysis of judgments the author shows how different legitimizing strategies are used, and contributes to the semblance of objectivity. What is striking in this part of the study is the complete lack of representation of the legal actors, given their central roles for the progress of the trial. The defence counsel, the prosecutor as well as the judges are completely erased in the judgments.<br/><br>
The conclusion of this study is that the positivist objectivity ideal has a strong position. The author argues that this is one of the reasons why certain norms and values, which to a large extent are common within the group of people that interprets and applies the laws and interprets the reality that the laws applies to, are made invisible and appears to be normal, natural and necessary. Instead of an objectivity ideal where the one that sees and interprets and ultimately judges must scrutinize her- or him self, and be able to see her or his own values, these are hidden in the semblance of the positivist objectivity.},
  author       = {Bladini, Moa},
  isbn         = {978­-91­-7061-­126-­1},
  keyword      = {Evaluation of evidence,Critical discourse analysis,Legal knowledge,Judging,Criminal trials,Objectivity,Procedural law,Processrätt},
  language     = {swe},
  pages        = {420},
  publisher    = {Makadam förlag},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {I objektivitetens sken - en kritisk granskning av objektivitetsideal, objektivitetsanspråk och legitimeringsstrategier i diskurser om dömande i brottmål.},
  year         = {2013},
}