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Patterns and processes in nocturnal and crepuscular pollination services

Borges, Renee M.; Somanathan, Hema LU and Kelber, Almut LU (2016) In Quarterly Review of Biology 91(4). p.389-418
Abstract

Night,dawn,and dusk have abiotic features that differ from the day. Illumination,wind speeds,turbulence,and temperatures are lower while humidity may be higher at night. Nocturnal pollination occurred in 30% of angiosperm families across 68% of orders,97% of families with C3,two-thirds of fam-ilies with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM),and 71% dicot families with C4 photosynthesis. Despite its widespread occurence,nocturnal pollination occurs in more families with xerophytic adaptations than helophytes or mesophytes,suggesting that nocturnal flowering is primarily an adaptation to water stress since flowering is a water-intensive process. We propose the arid or water stress hypothesis for nocturnal flowering suggesting that... (More)

Night,dawn,and dusk have abiotic features that differ from the day. Illumination,wind speeds,turbulence,and temperatures are lower while humidity may be higher at night. Nocturnal pollination occurred in 30% of angiosperm families across 68% of orders,97% of families with C3,two-thirds of fam-ilies with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM),and 71% dicot families with C4 photosynthesis. Despite its widespread occurence,nocturnal pollination occurs in more families with xerophytic adaptations than helophytes or mesophytes,suggesting that nocturnal flowering is primarily an adaptation to water stress since flowering is a water-intensive process. We propose the arid or water stress hypothesis for nocturnal flowering suggesting that plants facing water stress in a habitat (e.g.,deserts) or a habitat stratum (e.g.,upper canopy for epiphytes) gain a selective advantage by nocturnal flowering by reducing water loss through evapotranspiration,leading to larger flowers that provide more nectar or other resources,to support pollinators with higher rewards. Contrary to the wide taxonomic occurrence of nocturnal flowering,few animal taxa serve as nocturnal pollinators. We discuss the sensory and physiological abilities that enable pollinator movement,navigation,and detection of flowers within the nocturnal temporal niche and present a unified framework for investigation of nocturnal flowering and pollination.

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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Aridity, Crepuscular pollination, Dawn, Dusk, Nocturnal pollination network, Water stress
in
Quarterly Review of Biology
volume
91
issue
4
pages
30 pages
publisher
University of Chicago Press
external identifiers
  • scopus:84996538420
ISSN
0033-5770
DOI
10.1086/689481
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
370dc49b-6ed9-442f-8b4b-4b8e2e41c07d
date added to LUP
2016-12-09 07:49:09
date last changed
2017-08-20 05:05:30
@article{370dc49b-6ed9-442f-8b4b-4b8e2e41c07d,
  abstract     = {<p>Night,dawn,and dusk have abiotic features that differ from the day. Illumination,wind speeds,turbulence,and temperatures are lower while humidity may be higher at night. Nocturnal pollination occurred in 30% of angiosperm families across 68% of orders,97% of families with C<sub>3</sub>,two-thirds of fam-ilies with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM),and 71% dicot families with C4 photosynthesis. Despite its widespread occurence,nocturnal pollination occurs in more families with xerophytic adaptations than helophytes or mesophytes,suggesting that nocturnal flowering is primarily an adaptation to water stress since flowering is a water-intensive process. We propose the arid or water stress hypothesis for nocturnal flowering suggesting that plants facing water stress in a habitat (e.g.,deserts) or a habitat stratum (e.g.,upper canopy for epiphytes) gain a selective advantage by nocturnal flowering by reducing water loss through evapotranspiration,leading to larger flowers that provide more nectar or other resources,to support pollinators with higher rewards. Contrary to the wide taxonomic occurrence of nocturnal flowering,few animal taxa serve as nocturnal pollinators. We discuss the sensory and physiological abilities that enable pollinator movement,navigation,and detection of flowers within the nocturnal temporal niche and present a unified framework for investigation of nocturnal flowering and pollination.</p>},
  author       = {Borges, Renee M. and Somanathan, Hema and Kelber, Almut},
  issn         = {0033-5770},
  keyword      = {Aridity,Crepuscular pollination,Dawn,Dusk,Nocturnal pollination network,Water stress},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {12},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {389--418},
  publisher    = {University of Chicago Press},
  series       = {Quarterly Review of Biology},
  title        = {Patterns and processes in nocturnal and crepuscular pollination services},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/689481},
  volume       = {91},
  year         = {2016},
}