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Academic Entrepreneurship and Exchange of Scientific Resources : Material Transfer in Life and Materials Sciences in Japanese Universities

Shibayama, Sotaro LU ; Walsh, John P. and Baba, Yasunori (2012) In American Sociological Review 77(5). p.804-830
Abstract

This study uses a sample of Japanese university scientists in life and materials sciences to examine how academic entrepreneurship has affected the norms and behaviors of academic scientists regarding sharing scientific resources. Results indicate that high levels of academic entrepreneurship in a scientific field are associated with less reliance on the gift-giving form of sharing (i.e., generalized exchange) traditionally recommended by scientific communities, and with a greater emphasis on direct benefits for givers (i.e., direct exchange), as well as a lower overall frequency of sharing. We observe these shifts in sharing behavior even among individual scientists who are not themselves entrepreneurially active; this suggests a... (More)

This study uses a sample of Japanese university scientists in life and materials sciences to examine how academic entrepreneurship has affected the norms and behaviors of academic scientists regarding sharing scientific resources. Results indicate that high levels of academic entrepreneurship in a scientific field are associated with less reliance on the gift-giving form of sharing (i.e., generalized exchange) traditionally recommended by scientific communities, and with a greater emphasis on direct benefits for givers (i.e., direct exchange), as well as a lower overall frequency of sharing. We observe these shifts in sharing behavior even among individual scientists who are not themselves entrepreneurially active; this suggests a general shift in scientific norms contingent on institutional contexts. These findings reflect contradictions inherent in current science policies that simultaneously encourage open science as well as commercial application of research results, and they suggest that the increasing emphasis on commercial activity may fundamentally change the normative structure of science.

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author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
academic capitalism, academic entrepreneurship, material transfer, scientific norms, social exchange
in
American Sociological Review
volume
77
issue
5
pages
27 pages
publisher
American Sociological Association
external identifiers
  • scopus:84867021158
ISSN
0003-1224
DOI
10.1177/0003122412452874
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
37328e6b-2ab9-4d25-86dd-41f1e3d09b6c
date added to LUP
2017-04-13 17:52:03
date last changed
2017-08-20 05:10:15
@article{37328e6b-2ab9-4d25-86dd-41f1e3d09b6c,
  abstract     = {<p>This study uses a sample of Japanese university scientists in life and materials sciences to examine how academic entrepreneurship has affected the norms and behaviors of academic scientists regarding sharing scientific resources. Results indicate that high levels of academic entrepreneurship in a scientific field are associated with less reliance on the gift-giving form of sharing (i.e., generalized exchange) traditionally recommended by scientific communities, and with a greater emphasis on direct benefits for givers (i.e., direct exchange), as well as a lower overall frequency of sharing. We observe these shifts in sharing behavior even among individual scientists who are not themselves entrepreneurially active; this suggests a general shift in scientific norms contingent on institutional contexts. These findings reflect contradictions inherent in current science policies that simultaneously encourage open science as well as commercial application of research results, and they suggest that the increasing emphasis on commercial activity may fundamentally change the normative structure of science.</p>},
  author       = {Shibayama, Sotaro and Walsh, John P. and Baba, Yasunori},
  issn         = {0003-1224},
  keyword      = {academic capitalism,academic entrepreneurship,material transfer,scientific norms,social exchange},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {804--830},
  publisher    = {American Sociological Association},
  series       = {American Sociological Review},
  title        = {Academic Entrepreneurship and Exchange of Scientific Resources : Material Transfer in Life and Materials Sciences in Japanese Universities},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003122412452874},
  volume       = {77},
  year         = {2012},
}