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Temperature limit values for touching cold surfaces with the fingertip

Geng, Q. ; Holmér, Ingvar LU ; Hartog, Den E. A. ; Havenith, G. ; Jay, O. ; Malchaire, J. ; Piette, A. ; Rintamaki, H. and Rissanen, S. (2006) In Annals of Occupational Hygiene 50(8). p.851-862
Abstract
Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold surfaces. Methods: Data were collected in four laboratories with a total of 20 males and 20 females performing a grand total of 1655 exposures. Each touched polished blocks of aluminium, stainless steel, nylon-6 and wood using the distal phalanx of the index finger with a contact force of 1.0, 2.9 and 9.8 N, at surface temperatures from +2 to -40 degrees C for a maximum duration of 120 s. Conditions were selected in order to elicit varying rates of... (More)
Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold surfaces. Methods: Data were collected in four laboratories with a total of 20 males and 20 females performing a grand total of 1655 exposures. Each touched polished blocks of aluminium, stainless steel, nylon-6 and wood using the distal phalanx of the index finger with a contact force of 1.0, 2.9 and 9.8 N, at surface temperatures from +2 to -40 degrees C for a maximum duration of 120 s. Conditions were selected in order to elicit varying rates of skin cooling upon contact. Contact temperature (T-C) of the fingertip was measured over time using a T-type thermocouple. Results: A database obtained from the experiments was collated and analysed to characterize fingertip contact cooling across a range of materials and surface temperatures. The database was subsequently used to develop a predictive model to describe the contact duration required for skin contact temperature to reach the physiological criteria of onset of pain (15 degrees C), onset of numbness (7 degrees C) and onset of frostbite risk (0 degrees C). Conclusions: The data reflect the strong link between the risk of skin damage and the thermal properties of the material touched. For aluminium and steel, skin temperatures of 0 degrees C occurs within 2-6 s at surface temperatures of -15 degrees C. For non-metallic surfaces, onset of numbness occurs within 15-65 s of contact at -35 degrees C and onset of cold pain occurs within 5 s of contact at -20 degrees C. The predictive model subsequently developed was a non-linear exponential expression also reflecting the effects of material thermal properties and initial temperature. This model provides information for the protection of workers against the risk of cold injury by establishing the temperature limits of cold touchable surfaces for a broad range of materials, and it is now proposed as guidance values in a new international standard. (Less)
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author
; ; ; ; ; ; ; and
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
cold surfaces, contact temperature, finger touching, machine safety
in
Annals of Occupational Hygiene
volume
50
issue
8
pages
851 - 862
publisher
Oxford University Press
external identifiers
  • wos:000242245800010
  • scopus:33845262046
  • pmid:16777911
ISSN
1475-3162
DOI
10.1093/annhyg/mel030
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
34802412-2e95-4167-be56-3c39916d3d44 (old id 376661)
date added to LUP
2016-04-01 16:32:15
date last changed
2020-03-24 04:36:14
@article{34802412-2e95-4167-be56-3c39916d3d44,
  abstract     = {Objectives: At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was performed in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the short-term accidental touching of the fingertip with cold surfaces. Methods: Data were collected in four laboratories with a total of 20 males and 20 females performing a grand total of 1655 exposures. Each touched polished blocks of aluminium, stainless steel, nylon-6 and wood using the distal phalanx of the index finger with a contact force of 1.0, 2.9 and 9.8 N, at surface temperatures from +2 to -40 degrees C for a maximum duration of 120 s. Conditions were selected in order to elicit varying rates of skin cooling upon contact. Contact temperature (T-C) of the fingertip was measured over time using a T-type thermocouple. Results: A database obtained from the experiments was collated and analysed to characterize fingertip contact cooling across a range of materials and surface temperatures. The database was subsequently used to develop a predictive model to describe the contact duration required for skin contact temperature to reach the physiological criteria of onset of pain (15 degrees C), onset of numbness (7 degrees C) and onset of frostbite risk (0 degrees C). Conclusions: The data reflect the strong link between the risk of skin damage and the thermal properties of the material touched. For aluminium and steel, skin temperatures of 0 degrees C occurs within 2-6 s at surface temperatures of -15 degrees C. For non-metallic surfaces, onset of numbness occurs within 15-65 s of contact at -35 degrees C and onset of cold pain occurs within 5 s of contact at -20 degrees C. The predictive model subsequently developed was a non-linear exponential expression also reflecting the effects of material thermal properties and initial temperature. This model provides information for the protection of workers against the risk of cold injury by establishing the temperature limits of cold touchable surfaces for a broad range of materials, and it is now proposed as guidance values in a new international standard.},
  author       = {Geng, Q. and Holmér, Ingvar and Hartog, Den E. A. and Havenith, G. and Jay, O. and Malchaire, J. and Piette, A. and Rintamaki, H. and Rissanen, S.},
  issn         = {1475-3162},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {851--862},
  publisher    = {Oxford University Press},
  series       = {Annals of Occupational Hygiene},
  title        = {Temperature limit values for touching cold surfaces with the fingertip},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mel030},
  doi          = {10.1093/annhyg/mel030},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2006},
}