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The REAL process - a process for recycling sludge from water works

Stendahl, K. ; Farm, C. ; Fritzdorf, I. and Ulmert, Hans LU (2006) In Water Science and Technology 54(5). p.235-242
Abstract
In order to produce drinking water, coagulants - such as aluminium salts - are widely used for precipitation and separation of impurities from raw water. The residual from the process is sludge, which presents a disposal problem. The REAL process is a method for recycling the aluminium from the sludge. In a first step, the aluminium hydroxide is dissolved in sulphuric acid. In a second step, an ultra filtration will separate all suspended matter and large molecules, leaving a concentrate of 15-20% dry solids. The permeate will contain the trivalent aluminium ions together with 30-50% of the organic contaminants. In a third step, by concentrating the permeate in a nano filter, the concentration of aluminium will be high enough to, in a... (More)
In order to produce drinking water, coagulants - such as aluminium salts - are widely used for precipitation and separation of impurities from raw water. The residual from the process is sludge, which presents a disposal problem. The REAL process is a method for recycling the aluminium from the sludge. In a first step, the aluminium hydroxide is dissolved in sulphuric acid. In a second step, an ultra filtration will separate all suspended matter and large molecules, leaving a concentrate of 15-20% dry solids. The permeate will contain the trivalent aluminium ions together with 30-50% of the organic contaminants. In a third step, by concentrating the permeate in a nano filter, the concentration of aluminium will be high enough to, in a fourth step, be precipitated with potassium sulphate to form a pure crystal: potassium aluminium sulphate. The potassium aluminium sulphate is comparable to standard aluminium sulphate. The process will give a residual in form of a concentrate from the ultra filtration, representing a few per cent of the incoming volume. This paper presents the results from a long time pilot-scale continuous test run at Vasteras water works in Sweden, as well as calculations of costs for full-scale operations. (Less)
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author
; ; and
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
water treatment, recirculation, precipitation, aluminium, filtration
in
Water Science and Technology
volume
54
issue
5
pages
235 - 242
publisher
IWA Publishing
external identifiers
  • wos:000242105100029
  • scopus:33751070477
ISSN
0273-1223
DOI
10.2166/wst.2006.567
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
222067a7-4676-49ee-b887-7ec6d389d3b7 (old id 376766)
date added to LUP
2016-04-01 16:44:27
date last changed
2021-06-30 04:53:31
@article{222067a7-4676-49ee-b887-7ec6d389d3b7,
  abstract     = {In order to produce drinking water, coagulants - such as aluminium salts - are widely used for precipitation and separation of impurities from raw water. The residual from the process is sludge, which presents a disposal problem. The REAL process is a method for recycling the aluminium from the sludge. In a first step, the aluminium hydroxide is dissolved in sulphuric acid. In a second step, an ultra filtration will separate all suspended matter and large molecules, leaving a concentrate of 15-20% dry solids. The permeate will contain the trivalent aluminium ions together with 30-50% of the organic contaminants. In a third step, by concentrating the permeate in a nano filter, the concentration of aluminium will be high enough to, in a fourth step, be precipitated with potassium sulphate to form a pure crystal: potassium aluminium sulphate. The potassium aluminium sulphate is comparable to standard aluminium sulphate. The process will give a residual in form of a concentrate from the ultra filtration, representing a few per cent of the incoming volume. This paper presents the results from a long time pilot-scale continuous test run at Vasteras water works in Sweden, as well as calculations of costs for full-scale operations.},
  author       = {Stendahl, K. and Farm, C. and Fritzdorf, I. and Ulmert, Hans},
  issn         = {0273-1223},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {235--242},
  publisher    = {IWA Publishing},
  series       = {Water Science and Technology},
  title        = {The REAL process - a process for recycling sludge from water works},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2006.567},
  doi          = {10.2166/wst.2006.567},
  volume       = {54},
  year         = {2006},
}