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Morphology and Properties of Polymer Blends -Polypropylene and a Thermoplastic Elastomer -Polypropylene/Polyamide (1/1) and a Modified Thermoplastic Elastomer

Ohlsson, Bertil LU (1998)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Fram till början av 80-talet var det främsta sättet, för att ta fram ett material med en ny egenskapsprofil, att framställa en ny polymer. Att ta fram denna polymer tog både lång tid och stora kostnader i anspråk. Utvecklingen gick i stället mot att blanda redan kända polymerer och på så sätt kombinera deras individuella egenskaper. De flesta polymerer är inte blandbara utan finns som separata faser i materialet. De första blandningarna innebar i att man blandade in en elastomer i en spröd termoplast, vilket resulterade i att man fick en slagseg plast.



Det är välkänt att många kombinationer av polymerer ger material som är spröda och har dålig hållfasthet. Detta beror på... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Fram till början av 80-talet var det främsta sättet, för att ta fram ett material med en ny egenskapsprofil, att framställa en ny polymer. Att ta fram denna polymer tog både lång tid och stora kostnader i anspråk. Utvecklingen gick i stället mot att blanda redan kända polymerer och på så sätt kombinera deras individuella egenskaper. De flesta polymerer är inte blandbara utan finns som separata faser i materialet. De första blandningarna innebar i att man blandade in en elastomer i en spröd termoplast, vilket resulterade i att man fick en slagseg plast.



Det är välkänt att många kombinationer av polymerer ger material som är spröda och har dålig hållfasthet. Detta beror på otillräcklig vidhäftning mellan faserna. För att förbättra vidhäftningen mellan polymerfaserna tillsätts en kompatibilisator, dvs ett material som lägger sig i gränsskiktet och binder ihop och stabiliserar de oblandbara faserna.



I första delen av denna avhandling har blandningar av polypropen (PP), termoplastisk elastomer (SEBS) och processolja studerats med avseende på hur olika egenskaper påverkas av blandningens struktur. Strukturstudierna visar att blandningarna inom ett brett sammaningsintervall bestod av två kontinuerliga och interpenetrerande nätverk av de separata polymerfaserna. Genom att variera sammansättningen kan blandningarnas mekaniska egenskaper varieras kraftigt. I smält form har blandningarna en lägre viskositet än de rena polymererna vilket underlättar bearbetning och formning av materialet.



I den andra delen av avhandlingen beskrivs effekten av att använda en kompatibilisator i blandningar av PP och polyamid (PA). Utan kompatibilisator är inte PP/PA blandningar användbara, men med en fungerande kompatibilisator får man ett material med utmärkta egenskaper. Studien visar att egenskaperna i stor grad beror på i vilken ordning man tillsätter komponenterna (Less)
Abstract
The search for polymeric materials with new property profiles has stimulated a great interest into polymer blends and reactive processing. During recent years many new blends have reached the market. Although some of these are homogeneous mixtures of polymers, most commercial blends are composed of immiscible polymers, and contain two or more polymeric phases. The properties of such blends depend on composition as well as blend morphology. Most combinations of immiscible polymers are incompatible, i. e. they give blends of low tensile and impact strengths. This is due to weak polymer - polymer interactions across phase boundaries. The properties of such combinations of polymers can often be dramatically improved by adding a suitable... (More)
The search for polymeric materials with new property profiles has stimulated a great interest into polymer blends and reactive processing. During recent years many new blends have reached the market. Although some of these are homogeneous mixtures of polymers, most commercial blends are composed of immiscible polymers, and contain two or more polymeric phases. The properties of such blends depend on composition as well as blend morphology. Most combinations of immiscible polymers are incompatible, i. e. they give blends of low tensile and impact strengths. This is due to weak polymer - polymer interactions across phase boundaries. The properties of such combinations of polymers can often be dramatically improved by adding a suitable compatibilizer. The present work concentrates on two blend systems, one intrinsically compatible, one which demonstrates the role of an efficient compatibilizer. The compatible blend system studied is based on polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-stat-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SEBS), extended by a processing oil (90 parts per 100 parts of SEBS). Within a broad composition range, this system gave blends with a bicontinuous network structure of the type commonly referred to as a physically cross-linked interpenetrating polymer network (IPN). The presence of a pronounced melting point depression of PP indicated partial miscibility in the melt. This suggested that the formation of an IPN structure is due to nucleation of polypropylene across the phase boundaries in the cooling two-phase melt. In injection moulding, this mechanism of structure formation leads to weld lines free from weaknesses. The low viscosity of the two phase blends simplifies processing and form-filling. The presence of an IPN structure in the solid state contributes to interesting mechanical properties, properties which may be varied within wide limits. Polyamide (PA) and PP are incompatible, but may give useful blends if combined with a suitable compatibilizer. The present study is concerned with blends prepared by melt mixing of PP, PA and either SEBS modified to contain an EB mid-block with succinic anhydride groups (SEBS-MA), or unmodified SEBS. In blends prepared using SEBS-MA, the actual compatibilizer is the graft copolymer formed as the succinic anhydride groups react with polyamide end groups. This graft copolymer was found to give blends with much finer PA domains and better mechanical properties than unmodified SEBS. The effect of compatibilizer concentration and mixing strategy on blend morphology, as well as the effect of blend morphology on mechanical properties, the crystallization behavior of PP and PA in the blends, and the rate of water uptake are discussed. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Prof Gedde, Ulf, Dept. of Polymer Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Reactive Processing, Compatibilization, Thermal Properties, Mechanical Properties, Morphology, SEBS, Polyamide, Polymer Blends, Polypropylene, Polymer technology, biopolymers, Polymerteknik
pages
128 pages
publisher
Gunilla Cederholm, Chemical Engineering II, Chemical Center, P.O. Box 124, S-221 00 LUND, Sweden,
defense location
Lecture Hall C, Chemical Center, Lund
defense date
1998-05-08 13:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: LUTKDH/TKKT--98/1048--SE
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
6bcb1c0a-29a0-442e-8560-3247e8fd1a67 (old id 38659)
date added to LUP
2007-08-02 08:52:09
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:11
@phdthesis{6bcb1c0a-29a0-442e-8560-3247e8fd1a67,
  abstract     = {The search for polymeric materials with new property profiles has stimulated a great interest into polymer blends and reactive processing. During recent years many new blends have reached the market. Although some of these are homogeneous mixtures of polymers, most commercial blends are composed of immiscible polymers, and contain two or more polymeric phases. The properties of such blends depend on composition as well as blend morphology. Most combinations of immiscible polymers are incompatible, i. e. they give blends of low tensile and impact strengths. This is due to weak polymer - polymer interactions across phase boundaries. The properties of such combinations of polymers can often be dramatically improved by adding a suitable compatibilizer. The present work concentrates on two blend systems, one intrinsically compatible, one which demonstrates the role of an efficient compatibilizer. The compatible blend system studied is based on polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-stat-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SEBS), extended by a processing oil (90 parts per 100 parts of SEBS). Within a broad composition range, this system gave blends with a bicontinuous network structure of the type commonly referred to as a physically cross-linked interpenetrating polymer network (IPN). The presence of a pronounced melting point depression of PP indicated partial miscibility in the melt. This suggested that the formation of an IPN structure is due to nucleation of polypropylene across the phase boundaries in the cooling two-phase melt. In injection moulding, this mechanism of structure formation leads to weld lines free from weaknesses. The low viscosity of the two phase blends simplifies processing and form-filling. The presence of an IPN structure in the solid state contributes to interesting mechanical properties, properties which may be varied within wide limits. Polyamide (PA) and PP are incompatible, but may give useful blends if combined with a suitable compatibilizer. The present study is concerned with blends prepared by melt mixing of PP, PA and either SEBS modified to contain an EB mid-block with succinic anhydride groups (SEBS-MA), or unmodified SEBS. In blends prepared using SEBS-MA, the actual compatibilizer is the graft copolymer formed as the succinic anhydride groups react with polyamide end groups. This graft copolymer was found to give blends with much finer PA domains and better mechanical properties than unmodified SEBS. The effect of compatibilizer concentration and mixing strategy on blend morphology, as well as the effect of blend morphology on mechanical properties, the crystallization behavior of PP and PA in the blends, and the rate of water uptake are discussed.},
  author       = {Ohlsson, Bertil},
  keyword      = {Reactive Processing,Compatibilization,Thermal Properties,Mechanical Properties,Morphology,SEBS,Polyamide,Polymer Blends,Polypropylene,Polymer technology,biopolymers,Polymerteknik},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {128},
  publisher    = {Gunilla Cederholm, Chemical Engineering II, Chemical Center, P.O. Box 124, S-221 00 LUND, Sweden,},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Morphology and Properties of Polymer Blends -Polypropylene and a Thermoplastic Elastomer -Polypropylene/Polyamide (1/1) and a Modified Thermoplastic Elastomer},
  year         = {1998},
}