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Both localized and systemic bacterial infections are predicted by injection drug use : A prospective follow-up study in Swedish criminal justice clients

Dahlman, Disa LU ; Berge, Jonas LU ; Björkman, Per LU ; Nilsson, Anna C. LU and Håkansson, Anders LU (2018) In PLoS ONE 13(5).
Abstract

Background Both skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and systemic bacterial infections are common in people who inject drugs (PWID), but data on incidence and risk factors are lacking. We compared registered diagnoses for such infections in Swedish criminal justice clients with regard to injecting drug use. Methods Baseline interview data from the Swedish Prison and Probation Service on drug use in PWID and non-PWID with problematic alcohol use were linked to follow-up data from national Swedish registers on hospital diagnoses and/or death. Associations between drug use and later diagnosis of SSTI and systemic bacterial infection (septicemia or bacterial infection of the heart, bone/joints or central nervous system) were analyzed by... (More)

Background Both skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and systemic bacterial infections are common in people who inject drugs (PWID), but data on incidence and risk factors are lacking. We compared registered diagnoses for such infections in Swedish criminal justice clients with regard to injecting drug use. Methods Baseline interview data from the Swedish Prison and Probation Service on drug use in PWID and non-PWID with problematic alcohol use were linked to follow-up data from national Swedish registers on hospital diagnoses and/or death. Associations between drug use and later diagnosis of SSTI and systemic bacterial infection (septicemia or bacterial infection of the heart, bone/joints or central nervous system) were analyzed by Cox regression. Results Incidence rates of SSTI was 28.3 per 1,000 person-years for PWID (n = 2,444) and 10.0 for non-PWID with problematic alcohol use (n = 735). Incidence rates of systemic bacterial infection was 9.1 per 1,000 person-years for PWID and 2.7 per 1,000 person-years for non-PWID. Injection drug use was associated with a significantly increased risk of bacterial infections, for main drugs heroin (SSTI: Hazard ratio [HR] 2.45; systemic infection: HR 2.75), amphetamine (SSTI: HR 1.60; systemic infection: HR 2.19), and polysubstance use (SSTI: HR 1.92; systemic infection: HR 2.01). In relation to injection use of amphetamine and polysubstance use, PWID mainly using heroin had higher risk of SSTI. Conclusions Injection drug use predicted both SSTI and systemic bacterial infection, with a particularly high risk of SSTI in PWID mainly using heroin. The results imply the need for increased attention to bacterial infections among PWID, in terms of clinical management, prevention and research.

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published
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in
PLoS ONE
volume
13
issue
5
publisher
Public Library of Science
external identifiers
  • scopus:85047941452
ISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0196944
language
English
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yes
id
389f0939-374d-42dd-903d-2c13f8543d1a
date added to LUP
2018-06-13 15:29:19
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2018-06-14 03:00:06
@article{389f0939-374d-42dd-903d-2c13f8543d1a,
  abstract     = {<p>Background Both skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and systemic bacterial infections are common in people who inject drugs (PWID), but data on incidence and risk factors are lacking. We compared registered diagnoses for such infections in Swedish criminal justice clients with regard to injecting drug use. Methods Baseline interview data from the Swedish Prison and Probation Service on drug use in PWID and non-PWID with problematic alcohol use were linked to follow-up data from national Swedish registers on hospital diagnoses and/or death. Associations between drug use and later diagnosis of SSTI and systemic bacterial infection (septicemia or bacterial infection of the heart, bone/joints or central nervous system) were analyzed by Cox regression. Results Incidence rates of SSTI was 28.3 per 1,000 person-years for PWID (n = 2,444) and 10.0 for non-PWID with problematic alcohol use (n = 735). Incidence rates of systemic bacterial infection was 9.1 per 1,000 person-years for PWID and 2.7 per 1,000 person-years for non-PWID. Injection drug use was associated with a significantly increased risk of bacterial infections, for main drugs heroin (SSTI: Hazard ratio [HR] 2.45; systemic infection: HR 2.75), amphetamine (SSTI: HR 1.60; systemic infection: HR 2.19), and polysubstance use (SSTI: HR 1.92; systemic infection: HR 2.01). In relation to injection use of amphetamine and polysubstance use, PWID mainly using heroin had higher risk of SSTI. Conclusions Injection drug use predicted both SSTI and systemic bacterial infection, with a particularly high risk of SSTI in PWID mainly using heroin. The results imply the need for increased attention to bacterial infections among PWID, in terms of clinical management, prevention and research.</p>},
  articleno    = {e0196944},
  author       = {Dahlman, Disa and Berge, Jonas and Björkman, Per and Nilsson, Anna C. and Håkansson, Anders},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {05},
  number       = {5},
  publisher    = {Public Library of Science},
  series       = {PLoS ONE},
  title        = {Both localized and systemic bacterial infections are predicted by injection drug use : A prospective follow-up study in Swedish criminal justice clients},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196944},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2018},
}