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Planning of Environments for People with Physical Disabilities Using Computer Aided Design

Eriksson, Joakim LU (1998)
Abstract
In the area of environment adaptations for people with physical disabilities, it is of vital importance that the design is optimized considering the human-environment interactions. All involved persons in such a planning process must be given sufficient support in understanding the information, so that everyone can participate actively. There is an apparent risk that discussions will be kept between experts, due to difficulties in understanding the complex and technical adaptation issues. This thesis investigates the use of computer-based tools for planning/designing environments for physically disabled people. A software prototype, and a method to use such a tool in the planning process, was developed and evaluated, based on the findings... (More)
In the area of environment adaptations for people with physical disabilities, it is of vital importance that the design is optimized considering the human-environment interactions. All involved persons in such a planning process must be given sufficient support in understanding the information, so that everyone can participate actively. There is an apparent risk that discussions will be kept between experts, due to difficulties in understanding the complex and technical adaptation issues. This thesis investigates the use of computer-based tools for planning/designing environments for physically disabled people. A software prototype, and a method to use such a tool in the planning process, was developed and evaluated, based on the findings from six case studies of real planning situations. The case studies indicated that although such a tool would support the design, as well as the dialog between the participants, a certain level of technical and economical efficiency must be obtained. To facilitate the professional planner's work, an important issue is to maintain a large library of 3D objects. With the latest prototype implementation, it was found that such a planning tool can be produced, even when using consumer-oriented computers. One previous critical factor, interactive manipulation of 3D objects, can now be achieved if utilizing modern graphic cards with 3D acceleration. A usability test was performed to evaluate the prototype's basic operations, involving two groups of future users: five occupational therapist students, and four persons with major physical impairments. It was found that although the usability was satisfactory for the basic tasks, several items needed to be improved or added in future versions. It is important with an integrated support for manikins, in order to evaluate, e.g., wheelchair accessibility, reach ability, positioning of handrails, etc. This thesis reviews and compiles published anthropometrical and biomechanical data into a uniform segment-by-segment structure, in order to aid the design and modifications of manikins. The compilation was implemented as a spreadsheet document. An MRI investigation of the neck-shoulder region was performed on 20 healthy Scandinavian, female volunteers, measuring various musculoskeletal properties. These measurements can be used for further refinements of manikin specifications and biomechanical models. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Gontijo, Leila, Dept. of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Fed. University of Santa Catarina, Brazil
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
manikin, Virtual Reality, CAD, computer aided design, 3D graphics, design tool, participatory planning, adaptation, Rehabilitation, disability, anthropometry, Technological sciences, magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, cervical spine kinematics, Teknik, biomechanics
pages
192 pages
publisher
Division of Ergonomics, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University
defense location
M:B, M-house, Ole Römers väg 1, Lund
defense date
1998-12-18 10:15
external identifiers
  • other:ISRN: LUTMDN/TMAT--1005--SE
ISSN
1104-1080
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
7138a93e-dfd1-45dc-834a-83e77b35088b (old id 39215)
date added to LUP
2007-06-21 10:28:43
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:54
@phdthesis{7138a93e-dfd1-45dc-834a-83e77b35088b,
  abstract     = {In the area of environment adaptations for people with physical disabilities, it is of vital importance that the design is optimized considering the human-environment interactions. All involved persons in such a planning process must be given sufficient support in understanding the information, so that everyone can participate actively. There is an apparent risk that discussions will be kept between experts, due to difficulties in understanding the complex and technical adaptation issues. This thesis investigates the use of computer-based tools for planning/designing environments for physically disabled people. A software prototype, and a method to use such a tool in the planning process, was developed and evaluated, based on the findings from six case studies of real planning situations. The case studies indicated that although such a tool would support the design, as well as the dialog between the participants, a certain level of technical and economical efficiency must be obtained. To facilitate the professional planner's work, an important issue is to maintain a large library of 3D objects. With the latest prototype implementation, it was found that such a planning tool can be produced, even when using consumer-oriented computers. One previous critical factor, interactive manipulation of 3D objects, can now be achieved if utilizing modern graphic cards with 3D acceleration. A usability test was performed to evaluate the prototype's basic operations, involving two groups of future users: five occupational therapist students, and four persons with major physical impairments. It was found that although the usability was satisfactory for the basic tasks, several items needed to be improved or added in future versions. It is important with an integrated support for manikins, in order to evaluate, e.g., wheelchair accessibility, reach ability, positioning of handrails, etc. This thesis reviews and compiles published anthropometrical and biomechanical data into a uniform segment-by-segment structure, in order to aid the design and modifications of manikins. The compilation was implemented as a spreadsheet document. An MRI investigation of the neck-shoulder region was performed on 20 healthy Scandinavian, female volunteers, measuring various musculoskeletal properties. These measurements can be used for further refinements of manikin specifications and biomechanical models.},
  author       = {Eriksson, Joakim},
  issn         = {1104-1080},
  keyword      = {manikin,Virtual Reality,CAD,computer aided design,3D graphics,design tool,participatory planning,adaptation,Rehabilitation,disability,anthropometry,Technological sciences,magnetic resonance imaging,MRI,cervical spine kinematics,Teknik,biomechanics},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {192},
  publisher    = {Division of Ergonomics, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Planning of Environments for People with Physical Disabilities Using Computer Aided Design},
  year         = {1998},
}