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The evaluation of different evacuation models for assessing road tunnel safety analysis

Ronchi, Enrico LU ; Colonna, Pasquale; Capote, Jorge; Alvear, Daniel; Berloco, Nicola and Cuesta, Arturo (2012) In Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 30(July). p.74-84
Abstract
The current state-of-the-art presents a multiplicity of evacuation models for simulating emergency scenarios. Each model involves different methodological solutions to represent the same process and each one has its strengths and limitations. In addition, they have their own specific features and often practitioners do not have a thorough understanding of the variables that could be input into the models and how they will affect the results. Thus, there is a need to analyse the differences between the models, why they occur and how they affect the calculations. This study compares three evacuation models (FDS+Evac, STEPS, Pathfinder) and the analytical calculations provided in the Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) Handbook, each... (More)
The current state-of-the-art presents a multiplicity of evacuation models for simulating emergency scenarios. Each model involves different methodological solutions to represent the same process and each one has its strengths and limitations. In addition, they have their own specific features and often practitioners do not have a thorough understanding of the variables that could be input into the models and how they will affect the results. Thus, there is a need to analyse the differences between the models, why they occur and how they affect the calculations. This study compares three evacuation models (FDS+Evac, STEPS, Pathfinder) and the analytical calculations provided in the Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) Handbook, each of them using different simulation methods. The case-study is the Lantueno tunnel in Spain (a two-bore road tunnel with an emergency link tunnel between the two bores). The results initially show that, when considering evacuation scenarios with a single available exit and favourable response times, the obtained evacuation times do not differ significantly between the models. In a second step, the analysis of more complex scenarios has allowed the determination of the main factors of occupant–fire interactions that cause the differences between the models: the use of unfavourable pre-evacuation times and the exit selection process under low visibility conditions. These differences occur in relation to: (1) modelling method, (2) degree of depth of the analysis of the fire conditions during the calibration of the inputs, and (3) user’s experience in applying appropriate safety factors when using only one model. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Evacuation models, Human Behaviour in fire, Road tunnel fire, Emergency scenarios
in
Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology
volume
30
issue
July
pages
74 - 84
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:84860622153
ISSN
1878-4364
DOI
10.1016/j.tust.2012.02.008
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
f04f611c-6ac5-48b1-8091-c23422a1e33f (old id 4001433)
date added to LUP
2013-08-27 11:22:17
date last changed
2017-09-24 03:02:59
@article{f04f611c-6ac5-48b1-8091-c23422a1e33f,
  abstract     = {The current state-of-the-art presents a multiplicity of evacuation models for simulating emergency scenarios. Each model involves different methodological solutions to represent the same process and each one has its strengths and limitations. In addition, they have their own specific features and often practitioners do not have a thorough understanding of the variables that could be input into the models and how they will affect the results. Thus, there is a need to analyse the differences between the models, why they occur and how they affect the calculations. This study compares three evacuation models (FDS+Evac, STEPS, Pathfinder) and the analytical calculations provided in the Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) Handbook, each of them using different simulation methods. The case-study is the Lantueno tunnel in Spain (a two-bore road tunnel with an emergency link tunnel between the two bores). The results initially show that, when considering evacuation scenarios with a single available exit and favourable response times, the obtained evacuation times do not differ significantly between the models. In a second step, the analysis of more complex scenarios has allowed the determination of the main factors of occupant–fire interactions that cause the differences between the models: the use of unfavourable pre-evacuation times and the exit selection process under low visibility conditions. These differences occur in relation to: (1) modelling method, (2) degree of depth of the analysis of the fire conditions during the calibration of the inputs, and (3) user’s experience in applying appropriate safety factors when using only one model.},
  author       = {Ronchi, Enrico and Colonna, Pasquale and Capote, Jorge and Alvear, Daniel and Berloco, Nicola and Cuesta, Arturo},
  issn         = {1878-4364},
  keyword      = {Evacuation models,Human Behaviour in fire,Road tunnel fire,Emergency scenarios},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {July},
  pages        = {74--84},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology},
  title        = {The evaluation of different evacuation models for assessing road tunnel safety analysis},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2012.02.008},
  volume       = {30},
  year         = {2012},
}