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Radio Wave Propagation in Confined Environments - Measurements and Models

Börjeson, Henrik LU (2000) 11.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen handlar om hur radiovågor tar sig fram i miljöer där saker som hus, väggar och fönster är i vägen. Framför allt ligger fokus på hur signalen från en sändare placerad utomhus kan nå fram till en mobil terminal (t. ex. en mobiltelefon) som befinner sig inomhus. Hur mycket signalen dämpas när den passerar väggen är av stor betydelse när man ska avgöra hur långt sändaren når.



Här har mätningar gjorts vid frekvenserna 1800 MHZ och 5800MHz som sedan ligger till grund för modeller och teoretiska beräkningar av signalens dämpning. Dessutom har undersökningar gjorts på hur mycket "radio-eko" som bildas när radiovågen studsar fram och tillbaka mellan väggarna. En miljö med... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen handlar om hur radiovågor tar sig fram i miljöer där saker som hus, väggar och fönster är i vägen. Framför allt ligger fokus på hur signalen från en sändare placerad utomhus kan nå fram till en mobil terminal (t. ex. en mobiltelefon) som befinner sig inomhus. Hur mycket signalen dämpas när den passerar väggen är av stor betydelse när man ska avgöra hur långt sändaren når.



Här har mätningar gjorts vid frekvenserna 1800 MHZ och 5800MHz som sedan ligger till grund för modeller och teoretiska beräkningar av signalens dämpning. Dessutom har undersökningar gjorts på hur mycket "radio-eko" som bildas när radiovågen studsar fram och tillbaka mellan väggarna. En miljö med starka eko med långa fördröjningar gör att man inte kan skicka data så fort via radiokanalen. Speciellt har detta utretts vid 5800 MHz eftersom man i detta frekvensområde avser att bygga radiobaserade data-nätverk.



Till slut har undersökningar gjorts av hur man kan ta emot starkare signal från den önskade sändaren samtidigt som man dämpar mottagningen från oönskade sändare som råkar ligga på samma frekvens. Genom att använda antenner med riktverkan kan åstadkomma detta och på så sätt utnyttja de tillgängliga radiofrekvenserna mer effektivt. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis deals with radio wave propagation in environments where the propagation is severely influenced by surrounding objects, mainly walls and other building structures. As an introduction, a brief description is given on propagation terms like loss, delay and dispersion along with system functions relevant for the topic. The focus is then placed on propagation from an outdoor transmitter to an indoor receiver at frequency bands aimed at personal communications and wireless local area networks. Penetration loss is measured at 1.8 and 5.8 GHz for various small scale wall and window structures. Empirical models have been evaluated for the dependence on incidence angle in order to provide a simple yet accurate model for the loss. The... (More)
This thesis deals with radio wave propagation in environments where the propagation is severely influenced by surrounding objects, mainly walls and other building structures. As an introduction, a brief description is given on propagation terms like loss, delay and dispersion along with system functions relevant for the topic. The focus is then placed on propagation from an outdoor transmitter to an indoor receiver at frequency bands aimed at personal communications and wireless local area networks. Penetration loss is measured at 1.8 and 5.8 GHz for various small scale wall and window structures. Empirical models have been evaluated for the dependence on incidence angle in order to provide a simple yet accurate model for the loss. The wideband characteristics of the penetrating radio wave are determined from measurements at 5.8 GHz and from the results some system aspects are discussed.



Penetration characteristics have been further evaluated by using different simulation methods in order to calculate propagation parameters. Both ray-tracing and full wave methods like the method of moments have been applied. Comparisons of the results have been made in order to determine under what conditions each model can be considered valid. For propagation further inside a complex office environment, an empirical model showing non linear relation with the number of penetrated wall sections in the direct path is proposed. The structure of this model can be directly related to the wideband results obtained for the environment.



The spatial properties of the radio wave were investigated in order to determine distributions for the angle of arrival while relating this to the propagation environment. Improvements in carrier to noise as well as carrier to interference ratios using directive antennas were estimated based on the spatial dispersion. Two types of antennas were compared, one switchable array and one adaptive circular array. The performance of the switched array was further established by measurements. By applying the antenna diagrams on the measured angular spectra of the receiver, improvements of several dBs were obtainable.



Finally, the issue of interference from indoor to outdoor systems was addressed. Measurements of penetration loss along with angle of arrival showed how an average transmission loss could be determined from the indoor sites and how the propagation characteristics were influenced when the interference was observed from an elevated outdoor position. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Prof Correia, Luis M., Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
radio wave propagation multipath channels loss measurement, Electronics, Elektronik
volume
11
pages
154 pages
publisher
Henrik Börjeson Department of Applied Electronics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118 SE 221 00 Lund Sweden,
defense location
E:1406 House of Electrical Engineering LTH
defense date
2000-03-24 10:15
ISSN
1402-8662
ISBN
91-7874-041-X
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
0874a5d4-0165-4b8c-926b-99080ab12c91 (old id 40377)
date added to LUP
2007-06-20 16:07:56
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:58
@phdthesis{0874a5d4-0165-4b8c-926b-99080ab12c91,
  abstract     = {This thesis deals with radio wave propagation in environments where the propagation is severely influenced by surrounding objects, mainly walls and other building structures. As an introduction, a brief description is given on propagation terms like loss, delay and dispersion along with system functions relevant for the topic. The focus is then placed on propagation from an outdoor transmitter to an indoor receiver at frequency bands aimed at personal communications and wireless local area networks. Penetration loss is measured at 1.8 and 5.8 GHz for various small scale wall and window structures. Empirical models have been evaluated for the dependence on incidence angle in order to provide a simple yet accurate model for the loss. The wideband characteristics of the penetrating radio wave are determined from measurements at 5.8 GHz and from the results some system aspects are discussed.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Penetration characteristics have been further evaluated by using different simulation methods in order to calculate propagation parameters. Both ray-tracing and full wave methods like the method of moments have been applied. Comparisons of the results have been made in order to determine under what conditions each model can be considered valid. For propagation further inside a complex office environment, an empirical model showing non linear relation with the number of penetrated wall sections in the direct path is proposed. The structure of this model can be directly related to the wideband results obtained for the environment.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The spatial properties of the radio wave were investigated in order to determine distributions for the angle of arrival while relating this to the propagation environment. Improvements in carrier to noise as well as carrier to interference ratios using directive antennas were estimated based on the spatial dispersion. Two types of antennas were compared, one switchable array and one adaptive circular array. The performance of the switched array was further established by measurements. By applying the antenna diagrams on the measured angular spectra of the receiver, improvements of several dBs were obtainable.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Finally, the issue of interference from indoor to outdoor systems was addressed. Measurements of penetration loss along with angle of arrival showed how an average transmission loss could be determined from the indoor sites and how the propagation characteristics were influenced when the interference was observed from an elevated outdoor position.},
  author       = {Börjeson, Henrik},
  isbn         = {91-7874-041-X},
  issn         = {1402-8662},
  keyword      = {radio wave propagation multipath channels loss measurement,Electronics,Elektronik},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {154},
  publisher    = {Henrik Börjeson Department of Applied Electronics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118 SE 221 00 Lund Sweden,},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Radio Wave Propagation in Confined Environments - Measurements and Models},
  volume       = {11},
  year         = {2000},
}