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Bark lesions and sensitivity to frost in beech and Norway spruce

Jönsson, Anna Maria LU (2000)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Barksprickor på bok och gran i södra Sverige.



Jag har undersökt samband mellan barksprickor, frostkänslighet och näringsstatus hos bok och gran i södra Sverige, samt om åtgärder mot markförsurning och näringsobalans i form av kalkning och vitaliseringsgödsling kan minska trädens frostkänslighet och därmed minska uppkomsten av barksprickor.



Frost kan skada den inre, levande delen av trädens bark och orsaka sprickor. Insekter och rötsvampar kan i sin tur angripa barksprickorna och ytterligare förvärra skadorna. Genom påverkan på trädens näringsstatus ökar luftföroreningar trädens känslighet för frost, samtidigt som deras motståndskraft mot angrepp av... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Barksprickor på bok och gran i södra Sverige.



Jag har undersökt samband mellan barksprickor, frostkänslighet och näringsstatus hos bok och gran i södra Sverige, samt om åtgärder mot markförsurning och näringsobalans i form av kalkning och vitaliseringsgödsling kan minska trädens frostkänslighet och därmed minska uppkomsten av barksprickor.



Frost kan skada den inre, levande delen av trädens bark och orsaka sprickor. Insekter och rötsvampar kan i sin tur angripa barksprickorna och ytterligare förvärra skadorna. Genom påverkan på trädens näringsstatus ökar luftföroreningar trädens känslighet för frost, samtidigt som deras motståndskraft mot angrepp av skadeorganismer försvagas. Det är framför allt en hög kvävedeposition och försurning av skogsmarken som leder till näringsobalans i träden. En hög kvävebelastning ökar tillväxten hos träden som därmed får ett större behov av andra näringsämnen. Samtidigt läcker näringsämnen ut från försurade skogsmarker, och kan därmed inte komma träden tillgodo. Markförsurning kan motverkas genom kalkning av skogen, och träd som har eller riskerar få näringsbrist kan behandlas med vitaliseringsgödsling som fyller på markens näringsförråd.



Från de i avhandlingen ingående studierna drog jag följande slutsatser:



- att luftföroreningar och överskott av kväve ökar antalet barksprickor på bok.



- att frostkänsligheten hos både bok och gran är relaterad till trädens näringsstatus.



- att bokar på skogsjordar med relativt hög kvävebelastning och låga koncentrationer av näringsämnen i mineraljorden är mer frostkänsliga.



- att kalkning och vitaliseringsgödsling har efter några år en viss positiv inverkan på barkens näringsstatus, frosttålighet och motståndskraft mot barksprickor. (Less)
Abstract
Strong temperature fluctuations and pathogen attacks can cause bark lesions, visible signs of wounds in the phloem and cambium. Pathogenic insects and fungi are able to invade lesions that have not healed, further increasing the damage. The ability of the tree to withstand climatic and biotic stress can be lowered by air pollution, especially N deposition, with subsequent alterations in the soil chemistry and in the nutrient status of the tree. It was concluded that air pollution, as indicated by epiphytic lichens on the tree stem, and excess nitrogen affected the frequency of beech bark lesions. The frost sensitivity of both beech and spruce bark was related to the concentrations of nutrients in the trees. A low C/N ratio and low... (More)
Strong temperature fluctuations and pathogen attacks can cause bark lesions, visible signs of wounds in the phloem and cambium. Pathogenic insects and fungi are able to invade lesions that have not healed, further increasing the damage. The ability of the tree to withstand climatic and biotic stress can be lowered by air pollution, especially N deposition, with subsequent alterations in the soil chemistry and in the nutrient status of the tree. It was concluded that air pollution, as indicated by epiphytic lichens on the tree stem, and excess nitrogen affected the frequency of beech bark lesions. The frost sensitivity of both beech and spruce bark was related to the concentrations of nutrients in the trees. A low C/N ratio and low concentrations of Cu, K and Zn in the mineral soil were related to high frost sensitivity in beech bark. Countermeasures, such as liming and vitality fertilization, had some positive effects on the bark chemistry. A tendency towards fewer bark lesions on beech treated with lime was found, and at one of three Norway spruce sites treated with a vitality fertilizer the treated trees were less sensitive to frost than the control trees. When measuring the sensitivity of bark to frost, influences of soil treatment and site specific conditions can be hidden by a stronger influence from the freezing treatment, depending on the hardiness status of the bark. The smaller the variation in concentration of an element, the more difficult it is to detect any influence upon the frost sensitivity. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Prof Huttunen, Satu, Dept of Botany, University of Oulu, Finland
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Picea abies, Multiple stress, Mineral nutrient balance, Liming, Lichen indices, Fagus sylvatica, Cryptococcus fagisuga, Excess nitrogen, Vitality fertilization, Plant ecology, Växtekologi
pages
100 pages
publisher
Department of Ecology, Lund University
defense location
Blå Hallen at the department of Ecology, Plant ecology, Ecology Building, Sölvegatan 37, Lund
defense date
2000-09-15 10:00
external identifiers
  • Other:ISRN: SE-LUNBDS/NBBE-00/1060+100pp
ISBN
91-7105-141-4
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
f57bdff9-93a9-4efe-a787-f72cf8385297 (old id 40664)
date added to LUP
2007-07-31 11:30:57
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:45:02
@phdthesis{f57bdff9-93a9-4efe-a787-f72cf8385297,
  abstract     = {Strong temperature fluctuations and pathogen attacks can cause bark lesions, visible signs of wounds in the phloem and cambium. Pathogenic insects and fungi are able to invade lesions that have not healed, further increasing the damage. The ability of the tree to withstand climatic and biotic stress can be lowered by air pollution, especially N deposition, with subsequent alterations in the soil chemistry and in the nutrient status of the tree. It was concluded that air pollution, as indicated by epiphytic lichens on the tree stem, and excess nitrogen affected the frequency of beech bark lesions. The frost sensitivity of both beech and spruce bark was related to the concentrations of nutrients in the trees. A low C/N ratio and low concentrations of Cu, K and Zn in the mineral soil were related to high frost sensitivity in beech bark. Countermeasures, such as liming and vitality fertilization, had some positive effects on the bark chemistry. A tendency towards fewer bark lesions on beech treated with lime was found, and at one of three Norway spruce sites treated with a vitality fertilizer the treated trees were less sensitive to frost than the control trees. When measuring the sensitivity of bark to frost, influences of soil treatment and site specific conditions can be hidden by a stronger influence from the freezing treatment, depending on the hardiness status of the bark. The smaller the variation in concentration of an element, the more difficult it is to detect any influence upon the frost sensitivity.},
  author       = {Jönsson, Anna Maria},
  isbn         = {91-7105-141-4},
  keyword      = {Picea abies,Multiple stress,Mineral nutrient balance,Liming,Lichen indices,Fagus sylvatica,Cryptococcus fagisuga,Excess nitrogen,Vitality fertilization,Plant ecology,Växtekologi},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {100},
  publisher    = {Department of Ecology, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Bark lesions and sensitivity to frost in beech and Norway spruce},
  year         = {2000},
}