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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency genotypes and allele frequencies in the Kavango and Zambezi regions of northern Namibia

Haiyambo, Daniel H. ; Ilunga, Alex ; Nangombe, Ruth ; Ababio, Grace ; Hatuikulipi, Toini ; Aleksenko, Larysa LU ; Misihairabgwi, Jane ; Uusiku, Petrina ; Pernica, Jeffrey M. and Greco, Beatrice , et al. (2019) In Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 113(8). p.483-488
Abstract

Background: Namibia has made significant gains in the fight against malaria, with a target of elimination by 2023. We examined the genotype and allele frequencies of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency to inform decisions on primaquine use, as we recently detected clusters of Plasmodium ovale curtisi in Kavango. Methods: A multistaged cross-sectional sampling method was used to enrol 212 children 2-9 y of age from schools and clinics in the Okavango and Zambezi regions of northern Namibia. Genotypes for the 202 G→A and 376 A→G mutations were assigned by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Of the 212 subjects enrolled, genotypes were available for 210, made up of 61 males and 149... (More)

Background: Namibia has made significant gains in the fight against malaria, with a target of elimination by 2023. We examined the genotype and allele frequencies of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency to inform decisions on primaquine use, as we recently detected clusters of Plasmodium ovale curtisi in Kavango. Methods: A multistaged cross-sectional sampling method was used to enrol 212 children 2-9 y of age from schools and clinics in the Okavango and Zambezi regions of northern Namibia. Genotypes for the 202 G→A and 376 A→G mutations were assigned by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Of the 212 subjects enrolled, genotypes were available for 210, made up of 61 males and 149 females. G6PD-deficient males (hemizygotes) and females (homozygotes) constituted 3.27% (2/61) and 0.0% (0/149), respectively. Female heterozygotes (AA- and BA-) constituted 10.07% (15/149), while G6PD wild-type males (with A or B haplotype) and females (with AA, BB or AB haplotypes) consisted of 96.72% (59/61) and 89.93% (134/149), respectively. The A-, A and B allele frequencies were 0.0474, 0.3036 and 0.6490, respectively. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests for female genotype frequencies did not show deviation (p=0.29). Conclusions: The frequency of G6PD deficiency alleles in males in the Kavango and Zambezi regions of northern Namibia constitute 3.27%, a first report to inform policy on primaquine role out.

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keywords
G6PDd alleles, genotypes, Kavango, Namibia, primaquine, Zambezi
in
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
volume
113
issue
8
article number
trz035
pages
6 pages
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • scopus:85070983502
  • pmid:31086985
ISSN
0035-9203
DOI
10.1093/trstmh/trz035
language
English
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yes
id
406d53a1-e61e-46c6-be73-7213605e013d
date added to LUP
2019-09-06 09:58:29
date last changed
2020-01-13 02:20:04
@article{406d53a1-e61e-46c6-be73-7213605e013d,
  abstract     = {<p>Background: Namibia has made significant gains in the fight against malaria, with a target of elimination by 2023. We examined the genotype and allele frequencies of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency to inform decisions on primaquine use, as we recently detected clusters of Plasmodium ovale curtisi in Kavango. Methods: A multistaged cross-sectional sampling method was used to enrol 212 children 2-9 y of age from schools and clinics in the Okavango and Zambezi regions of northern Namibia. Genotypes for the 202 G→A and 376 A→G mutations were assigned by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Of the 212 subjects enrolled, genotypes were available for 210, made up of 61 males and 149 females. G6PD-deficient males (hemizygotes) and females (homozygotes) constituted 3.27% (2/61) and 0.0% (0/149), respectively. Female heterozygotes (AA- and BA-) constituted 10.07% (15/149), while G6PD wild-type males (with A or B haplotype) and females (with AA, BB or AB haplotypes) consisted of 96.72% (59/61) and 89.93% (134/149), respectively. The A-, A and B allele frequencies were 0.0474, 0.3036 and 0.6490, respectively. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests for female genotype frequencies did not show deviation (p=0.29). Conclusions: The frequency of G6PD deficiency alleles in males in the Kavango and Zambezi regions of northern Namibia constitute 3.27%, a first report to inform policy on primaquine role out.</p>},
  author       = {Haiyambo, Daniel H. and Ilunga, Alex and Nangombe, Ruth and Ababio, Grace and Hatuikulipi, Toini and Aleksenko, Larysa and Misihairabgwi, Jane and Uusiku, Petrina and Pernica, Jeffrey M. and Greco, Beatrice and Quaye, Isaac K.},
  issn         = {0035-9203},
  language     = {eng},
  month        = {08},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {483--488},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene},
  title        = {Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency genotypes and allele frequencies in the Kavango and Zambezi regions of northern Namibia},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trz035},
  doi          = {10.1093/trstmh/trz035},
  volume       = {113},
  year         = {2019},
}