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Using Virtual Reality for Participatory Design and Brain Injury Rehabilitation

Davies, Roy LU (2000)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

I denna avhandling har användbarheten av Virtual Reality (VR) utvecklats och undersökts för två användningsområden: participatorisk design av arbetsplatser och hjärnskaderehabilitering.



Inom det första användningsområdet används VR tillsammans med fullskalemodellering, drama och demokratisk mötesteknik i en Visualiseringsverkstad. Denna arbetsmetod har utvecklats och testats på flera verkliga arbetsplatsförändringar där anställda har möjlighet att utforma sin egen arbetsplats tillsammans med ergonomer, byggare och arkitekter. Visualiseringsverkstaden är både en samling verktyg och ett användningsprotokoll för att stödja designprocessen. Detta ger deltagarna i processen ett... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

I denna avhandling har användbarheten av Virtual Reality (VR) utvecklats och undersökts för två användningsområden: participatorisk design av arbetsplatser och hjärnskaderehabilitering.



Inom det första användningsområdet används VR tillsammans med fullskalemodellering, drama och demokratisk mötesteknik i en Visualiseringsverkstad. Denna arbetsmetod har utvecklats och testats på flera verkliga arbetsplatsförändringar där anställda har möjlighet att utforma sin egen arbetsplats tillsammans med ergonomer, byggare och arkitekter. Visualiseringsverkstaden är både en samling verktyg och ett användningsprotokoll för att stödja designprocessen. Detta ger deltagarna i processen ett meningsfullt sammanhang och ett gemensamt språk.



VR:s roll och användning i Visualiseringsverkstaden var av särskilt stort intresse. I både verkliga situationer och under experimentella laboratorieförhållanden utvecklades och testades prototyper och användningsprotokoll med hjälp av fallstudiemetodik. Detta för att säkerställa en ekologisk validitet. Undersökningarna visade att ett enkelt VR-verktyg för att i grupp utforma arbetsmiljöer kan vara mycket användbart även om vissa brister i gränssnittet kan begränsa. Både denna enkla utrustning och mer avancerade " immersive VR" befanns vara värdefulla komplement till de andra verktygen i Visualiseringsverkstaden för att utvärdera en befintlig arbetsplats, skapa idéer och för att befästa idéer som framkommit under andra visualiseringsmöten. Rekommendationer för att utveckla personliga VR-baserade verktyg och användningsprotokoll ges i studien till personer som leder en participatorisk designprocess.



Inom det andra användningsområdet antogs det att VR var ett användbart komplement för utvärdering och träning samt som ett vardagligt hjälpmedel för personer som drabbats av hjärnskada. Synpunkter på detta antagande inhämtades först från arbetsterapeuter som arbetar med personer med hjärnskada. Ett prototypverktyg utvecklades sedan för att för att utvärdera en persons kognitiva förmåga. Prototypverktyget, som beskriver kaffebryggning, var baserat på samma utvärderings­förfarande som används i verkligheten. Arbetsterapeuterna gavs tillfälle att använda prototypen och diskutera om de tyckte att det var ett användbart koncept.



Reaktionerna visade sig vara positiva, varför projektet fortsatte med att klargöra vilka effekter de olika besluten fattade under designprocessen hade på prototypens användbarhet. Den använda prototypen utnyttjade automatisk vykontroll och all interaktion med systemet skedde genom enkla musklickningar. Vi var speciellt intresserade av hur den mycket speciella gruppen av brukare - personer med hjärnskador - skulle kunna använda verktyget. Resultaten visade på en hög grad av användbarhet, speciellt den automatiska vykontrollen var lätt att förstå. Även de enkla musklickningarna fungerade bra för att aktivera objekt, men kunde vara förvirrande när objekt skulle förflyttas eller då objekt skulle samverka.



Arbetena i denna avhandling visar att användningen av VR kan vara både fördelaktig och användbar om samma principer för design, utveckling och utvärdering används som vid framtagning av andra datorbaserade verktyg och människa-maskingränssnitt. Speciellt viktigt är det att gränssnittet inte hindrar användaren och att de uppgifter som verktyget skall kunna utföra väljs med omsorg, samt att samspelet mellan VR-verktyget och andra hjälpmedel klargörs tydligt. (Less)
Abstract
In this thesis, the usability of Virtual Reality (VR) has been investigated and developed within two applications: participatory design of workplaces and brain injury rehabilitation.



In the first application, VR is used in combination with full scale modelling, drama and democratic meetings in an Envisionment Workshop. This workshop has been developed and tested through several real workplace interventions to allow people from a workplace to design their own work environment in participation with others such as ergonomists, builders and architects. The Envisionment Workshop is both a collection of tools and protocols of usage to support the design process by providing a valid context and common language between the... (More)
In this thesis, the usability of Virtual Reality (VR) has been investigated and developed within two applications: participatory design of workplaces and brain injury rehabilitation.



In the first application, VR is used in combination with full scale modelling, drama and democratic meetings in an Envisionment Workshop. This workshop has been developed and tested through several real workplace interventions to allow people from a workplace to design their own work environment in participation with others such as ergonomists, builders and architects. The Envisionment Workshop is both a collection of tools and protocols of usage to support the design process by providing a valid context and common language between the participants.



Of particular interest was the role of VR within the Envisionment Workshop. Prototypes and protocols of usage were designed and evaluated in both real and experimental situations using a case study methodology to ensure high ecological validity.



It was found that a tool for group design using low-cost VR technology can, in principle, be very useful, though tends to suffer from limitations in the interface. Both this and more advanced immersive VR were, however, found to be valuable complements to the workshop for evaluating an existing workplace, for idea creation and for consolidating ideas generated during other envisionment sessions. Recommendations are made to participatory design practitioners for developing their own VR based tools and usage protocols for similar design tasks in a similar context using VR technology.



In the second application, it was postulated that VR could be a useful complement to assessment, training and as a daily living aid for people who have suffered a brain injury. The reactions to this idea were first sought from occupational therapists who work with people with a brain injury. A prototype tool was developed to mirror a standard assessment procedure for brain function difficulties (brewing coffee). The occupational therapists were given the chance to use the prototype and discuss whether they thought the idea sound.



Reactions were positive, so the project continued by investigating exactly what effect the decisions made in the design of the prototype had on its usability. This prototype utilized automatic viewpoint navigation and all interactions were through single mouse clicks. In particular, we were interested in how the rather unique group of users – people with brain injury – would be able to use the tool. The results indicated a high degree of usability, in particular that automatic navigation is easy to understand but can require augmentation by a ‘step-back’ button; and that single-clicks work well for object activation but can lead to some confusion when moving objects and in object-object interplay.



The work in this thesis shows that VR applications can be made to be both useful and usable if the same principles of design, development and testing are applied as for creating other usable computerised tools and human-computer interfaces. In particular, the interface mustn’t hinder the users, the tasks for the tool must be carefully chosen and the role of the tool as a complement to other tools established. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Dr Cobb, Susan, University of Nottingham, England.
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
pollution control, Environmental technology, Data- och systemvetenskap, computer technology, Systems engineering, Case Studies, Brain Injury Rehabilitation, Participatory Design, Virtual Reality, Usability, Applications, Miljöteknik, kontroll av utsläpp, Physical medicine, kinesitherapy, revalidation, rehabilitation, Rehabilitering (medicinsk och social)
pages
174 pages
publisher
Division of Ergonomics, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University
defense location
Ole Römers väg 1, Mechanical Technology Building, Lecture Theatre M:B
defense date
2000-10-13 10:15
ISSN
1104-1080
ISBN
91-7874-090-8
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
0f74ef44-38ab-45de-b3a4-ff7215522259 (old id 40855)
date added to LUP
2007-06-21 09:44:30
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:56
@phdthesis{0f74ef44-38ab-45de-b3a4-ff7215522259,
  abstract     = {In this thesis, the usability of Virtual Reality (VR) has been investigated and developed within two applications: participatory design of workplaces and brain injury rehabilitation.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In the first application, VR is used in combination with full scale modelling, drama and democratic meetings in an Envisionment Workshop. This workshop has been developed and tested through several real workplace interventions to allow people from a workplace to design their own work environment in participation with others such as ergonomists, builders and architects. The Envisionment Workshop is both a collection of tools and protocols of usage to support the design process by providing a valid context and common language between the participants.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Of particular interest was the role of VR within the Envisionment Workshop. Prototypes and protocols of usage were designed and evaluated in both real and experimental situations using a case study methodology to ensure high ecological validity.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
It was found that a tool for group design using low-cost VR technology can, in principle, be very useful, though tends to suffer from limitations in the interface. Both this and more advanced immersive VR were, however, found to be valuable complements to the workshop for evaluating an existing workplace, for idea creation and for consolidating ideas generated during other envisionment sessions. Recommendations are made to participatory design practitioners for developing their own VR based tools and usage protocols for similar design tasks in a similar context using VR technology.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In the second application, it was postulated that VR could be a useful complement to assessment, training and as a daily living aid for people who have suffered a brain injury. The reactions to this idea were first sought from occupational therapists who work with people with a brain injury. A prototype tool was developed to mirror a standard assessment procedure for brain function difficulties (brewing coffee). The occupational therapists were given the chance to use the prototype and discuss whether they thought the idea sound.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Reactions were positive, so the project continued by investigating exactly what effect the decisions made in the design of the prototype had on its usability. This prototype utilized automatic viewpoint navigation and all interactions were through single mouse clicks. In particular, we were interested in how the rather unique group of users – people with brain injury – would be able to use the tool. The results indicated a high degree of usability, in particular that automatic navigation is easy to understand but can require augmentation by a ‘step-back’ button; and that single-clicks work well for object activation but can lead to some confusion when moving objects and in object-object interplay.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
The work in this thesis shows that VR applications can be made to be both useful and usable if the same principles of design, development and testing are applied as for creating other usable computerised tools and human-computer interfaces. In particular, the interface mustn’t hinder the users, the tasks for the tool must be carefully chosen and the role of the tool as a complement to other tools established.},
  author       = {Davies, Roy},
  isbn         = {91-7874-090-8},
  issn         = {1104-1080},
  keyword      = {pollution control,Environmental technology,Data- och systemvetenskap,computer technology,Systems engineering,Case Studies,Brain Injury Rehabilitation,Participatory Design,Virtual Reality,Usability,Applications,Miljöteknik,kontroll av utsläpp,Physical medicine,kinesitherapy,revalidation,rehabilitation,Rehabilitering (medicinsk och social)},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {174},
  publisher    = {Division of Ergonomics, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {Using Virtual Reality for Participatory Design and Brain Injury Rehabilitation},
  year         = {2000},
}