Advanced

Detection of radioactive fragments in patients after radiological or nuclear emergencies using computed tomography and digital radiography.

Ören, Ünal LU ; Hansson, Mats LU ; Mattsson, Sören LU and Rääf, Christopher LU (2014) In Journal of Radiological Protection 34(1). p.231-247
Abstract
A comparison has been carried out between standard-dose computed tomography, non-diagnostic computed tomography and digital radiography with respect to their suitability for detecting radioactive fragments associated with nuclear or radiological events such as debris from radiological dispersal devices. The purpose was to investigate if radiographic imaging is justified for the detection and localisation of radioactive fragments in affected patients.Fragments of uranium (U), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and volcanic ash with effective diameters ranging from (approximately) 100 to 700 μm were selected. The fragments were positioned at two different locations on an anatomical torso phantom and images were produced with standard-dose CT,... (More)
A comparison has been carried out between standard-dose computed tomography, non-diagnostic computed tomography and digital radiography with respect to their suitability for detecting radioactive fragments associated with nuclear or radiological events such as debris from radiological dispersal devices. The purpose was to investigate if radiographic imaging is justified for the detection and localisation of radioactive fragments in affected patients.Fragments of uranium (U), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and volcanic ash with effective diameters ranging from (approximately) 100 to 700 μm were selected. The fragments were positioned at two different locations on an anatomical torso phantom and images were produced with standard-dose CT, non-diagnostic CT and digital radiography. Capsules with radionuclides of (137)Cs, (60)Co and (99m)Tc were also positioned in the phantom and the effective doses were estimated for radionuclide exposures as well as for standard-dose CT, non-diagnostic CT and digital radiography. For standard-dose CT and digital radiography, U, Cu and Fe fragments were detected in sizes down to 100-180, 250-300 and 300-400 μm respectively. For the non-diagnostic CT the results were 180-250 μm (for U), 300-400 μm (for Cu) and 400-500 μm (for Fe). The effective dose from the standard-dose CT, non-diagnostic CT and digital radiography was 5.6, 1.9 and 0.76 mSv. Corresponding doses from (137)Co, (60)Co and (99m)Tc positioned at the site of fragments were in the range of 0.07-0.1, 0.32-0.45 and 0.08-0.09 mSv per MBq during 24 h. We conclude that, for a number of gamma emitters with activity levels on the order of magnitude of megabecquerel, imaging using ionising radiation can be justified since the effective dose from the radionuclides will exceed the dose from the radiological examination. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Journal of Radiological Protection
volume
34
issue
1
pages
231 - 247
publisher
IOP Publishing
external identifiers
  • pmid:24566375
  • wos:000336508200019
  • scopus:84896803358
ISSN
1361-6498
DOI
10.1088/0952-4746/34/1/231
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
e75ce604-2b88-4f78-8372-1267882c487b (old id 4334033)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24566375?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2014-03-05 19:29:06
date last changed
2017-01-01 04:10:40
@article{e75ce604-2b88-4f78-8372-1267882c487b,
  abstract     = {A comparison has been carried out between standard-dose computed tomography, non-diagnostic computed tomography and digital radiography with respect to their suitability for detecting radioactive fragments associated with nuclear or radiological events such as debris from radiological dispersal devices. The purpose was to investigate if radiographic imaging is justified for the detection and localisation of radioactive fragments in affected patients.Fragments of uranium (U), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and volcanic ash with effective diameters ranging from (approximately) 100 to 700 μm were selected. The fragments were positioned at two different locations on an anatomical torso phantom and images were produced with standard-dose CT, non-diagnostic CT and digital radiography. Capsules with radionuclides of (137)Cs, (60)Co and (99m)Tc were also positioned in the phantom and the effective doses were estimated for radionuclide exposures as well as for standard-dose CT, non-diagnostic CT and digital radiography. For standard-dose CT and digital radiography, U, Cu and Fe fragments were detected in sizes down to 100-180, 250-300 and 300-400 μm respectively. For the non-diagnostic CT the results were 180-250 μm (for U), 300-400 μm (for Cu) and 400-500 μm (for Fe). The effective dose from the standard-dose CT, non-diagnostic CT and digital radiography was 5.6, 1.9 and 0.76 mSv. Corresponding doses from (137)Co, (60)Co and (99m)Tc positioned at the site of fragments were in the range of 0.07-0.1, 0.32-0.45 and 0.08-0.09 mSv per MBq during 24 h. We conclude that, for a number of gamma emitters with activity levels on the order of magnitude of megabecquerel, imaging using ionising radiation can be justified since the effective dose from the radionuclides will exceed the dose from the radiological examination.},
  author       = {Ören, Ünal and Hansson, Mats and Mattsson, Sören and Rääf, Christopher},
  issn         = {1361-6498},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {231--247},
  publisher    = {IOP Publishing},
  series       = {Journal of Radiological Protection},
  title        = {Detection of radioactive fragments in patients after radiological or nuclear emergencies using computed tomography and digital radiography.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0952-4746/34/1/231},
  volume       = {34},
  year         = {2014},
}