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Contact allergy to formaldehyde. Diagnosis and clinical relevance.

Dubnika Hauksson, Inese LU (2014) In Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral dissertation Series 2014:68.
Abstract
Preservatives are biologically active substances mainly used in water-based products to prevent the growth of

microorganisms. Most people are exposed to them on a daily basis. Formaldehyde is one of the oldest and most

commonly used preservatives. However, it is a well-known contact sensitiser in dermatitis patients.

The aims of this work were: i) to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to formaldehyde using the baseline

patch test series; ii) to determine the optimal patch test concentration and dose for formaldehyde; iii) to study

the clinical relevance of contact allergy to formaldehyde detected by formaldehyde 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) but not

by formaldehyde 1.0% (0.30 mg/cm2);... (More)
Preservatives are biologically active substances mainly used in water-based products to prevent the growth of

microorganisms. Most people are exposed to them on a daily basis. Formaldehyde is one of the oldest and most

commonly used preservatives. However, it is a well-known contact sensitiser in dermatitis patients.

The aims of this work were: i) to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to formaldehyde using the baseline

patch test series; ii) to determine the optimal patch test concentration and dose for formaldehyde; iii) to study

the clinical relevance of contact allergy to formaldehyde detected by formaldehyde 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) but not

by formaldehyde 1.0% (0.30 mg/cm2); iv) to study the effects of low concentrations of formaldehyde on irritant

contact dermatitis in formaldehyde-allergic patients; v) to semi-quantify the formaldehyde content in skin care

products used by patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, and compare this with the declaration of

contents; vi) to determine whether formaldehyde-allergic patients are more exposed to formaldehyde in skin

care products than dermatitis patients without contact allergy to formaldehyde; vii) to investigate the patterns

of concomitant contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers.

The findings were as follows: i) patch testing with 15 μl formaldehyde 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) using a micropipette

detects significantly more reacting individuals than 1.0% (0.30 mg/cm2), without a high frequency of irritant

reactions. ii) individuals who react to formaldehyde 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) but not to 1.0% (0.30 mg/cm2)

have a significant risk of developing an eczematous reaction when exposed to concentrations of formaldehyde

allowed by the EU Cosmetic Directive. iii) daily exposure to low concentrations of formaldehyde is sufficient to

exacerbate existing dermatitis in patients with contact allergy to formaldehyde. iv) to assess exposure and clinical

relevance in formaldehyde-allergic patients, the patients’ skin care products should be analysed, especially when

the labelling of the products does not include formaldehyde or formaldehyde-releasing preservatives. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • Professor Emtestam, Lennart, Sektionen för dermatologi och venereologi, Medicinkliniken,Huddinge/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Allergic contact dermatitis, preservatives, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, patch testing, repeated open application test, baseline series
categories
Higher Education
in
Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral dissertation Series
volume
2014:68
pages
140 pages
publisher
Occupational and Environmental Dermatology Unit
defense location
Lilla Aulan, Medicinskt Forskningscentrum, Jan Waldenströms gata 5, Skånes Universitetssjukhus i Malmö.
defense date
2014-05-28 09:00
external identifiers
  • scopus:84921764794
ISSN
1652-8220
ISBN
978-91-87651-95-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
2481053b-6f29-48b9-bbb5-ade1d8b58796 (old id 4436848)
date added to LUP
2014-05-20 13:54:49
date last changed
2017-01-01 06:16:18
@phdthesis{2481053b-6f29-48b9-bbb5-ade1d8b58796,
  abstract     = {Preservatives are biologically active substances mainly used in water-based products to prevent the growth of<br/><br>
microorganisms. Most people are exposed to them on a daily basis. Formaldehyde is one of the oldest and most<br/><br>
commonly used preservatives. However, it is a well-known contact sensitiser in dermatitis patients.<br/><br>
The aims of this work were: i) to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to formaldehyde using the baseline<br/><br>
patch test series; ii) to determine the optimal patch test concentration and dose for formaldehyde; iii) to study<br/><br>
the clinical relevance of contact allergy to formaldehyde detected by formaldehyde 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) but not<br/><br>
by formaldehyde 1.0% (0.30 mg/cm2); iv) to study the effects of low concentrations of formaldehyde on irritant<br/><br>
contact dermatitis in formaldehyde-allergic patients; v) to semi-quantify the formaldehyde content in skin care<br/><br>
products used by patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, and compare this with the declaration of<br/><br>
contents; vi) to determine whether formaldehyde-allergic patients are more exposed to formaldehyde in skin<br/><br>
care products than dermatitis patients without contact allergy to formaldehyde; vii) to investigate the patterns<br/><br>
of concomitant contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers.<br/><br>
The findings were as follows: i) patch testing with 15 μl formaldehyde 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) using a micropipette<br/><br>
detects significantly more reacting individuals than 1.0% (0.30 mg/cm2), without a high frequency of irritant<br/><br>
reactions. ii) individuals who react to formaldehyde 2.0% (0.60 mg/cm2) but not to 1.0% (0.30 mg/cm2)<br/><br>
have a significant risk of developing an eczematous reaction when exposed to concentrations of formaldehyde<br/><br>
allowed by the EU Cosmetic Directive. iii) daily exposure to low concentrations of formaldehyde is sufficient to<br/><br>
exacerbate existing dermatitis in patients with contact allergy to formaldehyde. iv) to assess exposure and clinical<br/><br>
relevance in formaldehyde-allergic patients, the patients’ skin care products should be analysed, especially when<br/><br>
the labelling of the products does not include formaldehyde or formaldehyde-releasing preservatives.},
  author       = {Dubnika Hauksson, Inese},
  isbn         = {978-91-87651-95-3},
  issn         = {1652-8220},
  keyword      = {Allergic contact dermatitis,preservatives,formaldehyde,formaldehyde releasers,patch testing,repeated open application test,baseline series},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {140},
  publisher    = {Occupational and Environmental Dermatology Unit},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral dissertation Series},
  title        = {Contact allergy to formaldehyde. Diagnosis and clinical relevance.},
  volume       = {2014:68},
  year         = {2014},
}