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Road Traffic Noise - Factors modifying its relation to annoyance and cardiovascular disease

Bodin, Theo LU (2014) In Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral dissertation Series 2014:75.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Minst en miljon friska levnadsår går förlorade varje år på grund av trafikbuller i Västeuropa. Buller stör vardagsaktiviteter och sömn, samt har kopplats samman med flera andra dåliga effekter på livskvalitet och hälsa, bland annat ökad risk för högt blodtryck och hjärtinfarkt. Vi vet från tidigare forskning att de dåliga effekterna av trafikbuller kan ändras av sociala, befolkningsmässiga och personliga egenskaper. Men det finns fortfarande ett behov av att hitta och förstå bullrets påverkan på känsliga grupper. Syftet med studierna i denna avhandling var att undersöka ett antal saker som vi trodde ändrar sambandet mellan vägtrafikbuller, störning och hjärt-kärlsjukdom, till exempel kön, ålder... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Minst en miljon friska levnadsår går förlorade varje år på grund av trafikbuller i Västeuropa. Buller stör vardagsaktiviteter och sömn, samt har kopplats samman med flera andra dåliga effekter på livskvalitet och hälsa, bland annat ökad risk för högt blodtryck och hjärtinfarkt. Vi vet från tidigare forskning att de dåliga effekterna av trafikbuller kan ändras av sociala, befolkningsmässiga och personliga egenskaper. Men det finns fortfarande ett behov av att hitta och förstå bullrets påverkan på känsliga grupper. Syftet med studierna i denna avhandling var att undersöka ett antal saker som vi trodde ändrar sambandet mellan vägtrafikbuller, störning och hjärt-kärlsjukdom, till exempel kön, ålder och klass men också hur bostäder är utformade.

Män och kvinnor i åldern 18-80 år bostatta i Skåne valdes ut med hjälp av slumpen. Utsattheten för för vägtrafikbuller, järnvägsbuller och luftföroreningar i deltagarnas hem räknades ut med hjälp av ett datorprogram som kan sätta ihop luft- och trafikmätningar med information om vägar, byggnader och omgivningar. Alla som var med i studierna fick svara på ett frågeformulär. Detta gav oss information om sjukdomar och störning, men också möjligheten att ta hänsyn till viktig information om deltagarna, till exempel ålder, kön, utbildningsnivå, vikt, rök- och motionsvanor m.m. I en studie kopplade vi också ihop deltagarna med Socialstyrelsens register för att få veta vilka sjukdomar de hade.

Vi kunde visa ett samband mellan vägbuller och högt blodtryck. Men när vi följde deltagarna över tid fann vi inget samband mellan buller och hjärtinfarkt. Luftföroreningar påverkade inte förhållandet, men halterna i luften var låga. Vi fann också starka samband mellan trafikbuller och störning. Det visade sig att järnvägsbuller var mindre störande än vägbuller vid mellanhöga, men inte vid höga bullernivåer. Tillgång till tyst sida i bostaden hade en skyddande effekt och minskade risken för störning, sömn -och koncentrationsproblem. Generellt sett såg vi att medelålders personer var mer känsliga för buller. De med högre status i samhället och högre utbildningsnivå var mer störda än arbetarklass och lågutbildade. När det gäller kön, såg vi inget tydligt mönster. Vi fann också att resultaten kunde vara snedvridna för att bullerkänsliga individer troligen skickade in sina svar oftare än andra, kanske för att de är mer angelägna. Hur man ställde frågor om bullerstörning påverkade också resultaten.

För att utveckla bättre sätt att skapa goda boendemiljöer, avseende buller, bör framtida forskning fokusera på kombinationen av olika buller- och luftföroreningskällor och ta hänsyn till andra stressfaktorer. Man bör också försöka förklara och ta hänsyn till ålders- och klasskillnader i framtida forskning. (Less)
Abstract
Traffic noise causes annoyance and sleep disturbance and has been linked with several other adverse effects on life quality and health, including increased risk of hypertension and myocardial infarction. Conservative estimates assume that at least one million healthy life years are lost every year from traffic related noise in the western part of Europe. We know from earlier studies that the adverse effects of environmental noise may be modified by social, demographic and individual factors. However, there is a need to better evaluate exposure-response in susceptible groups. The aim of this thesis was to test a number of factors hypothesised to modify the association between road traffic noise, annoyance and cardiovascular disease. Paper... (More)
Traffic noise causes annoyance and sleep disturbance and has been linked with several other adverse effects on life quality and health, including increased risk of hypertension and myocardial infarction. Conservative estimates assume that at least one million healthy life years are lost every year from traffic related noise in the western part of Europe. We know from earlier studies that the adverse effects of environmental noise may be modified by social, demographic and individual factors. However, there is a need to better evaluate exposure-response in susceptible groups. The aim of this thesis was to test a number of factors hypothesised to modify the association between road traffic noise, annoyance and cardiovascular disease. Paper I-III are cross-sectional, while paper IV is a cohort study. The four different study populations in this thesis were selected through stratified random sampling of men and women aged 18-80 years old in the county of Skåne and its major city Malmö in southern Sweden. Exposures of road traffic and railway noise as well as air pollution were modelled using geographic information system (GIS) for the survey participants’ residential addresses. Possible confounding and modifying factors were mainly drawn from survey responses while outcomes were based on both self-reporting and inpatient registers. We were not able to show a relation between current and medium-term noise exposure to road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease in the general population. Air-pollution at low levels did not modify this effect. An association was however found between road traffic noise and hypertension in a cross-sectional study >60dB(A). We also found strong and positive relations between road traffic noise and annoyance. Railway noise was found to be less annoying at intermediate levels, but not >55dB(A). Access to quiet side had a protective effect and decreased the risk of annoyance, sleep and concentration problems equal to a 5dB(A) decrease in noise exposure. Generally middle-aged persons were found to be more susceptible to noise. Higher socioeconomic status and educational level were related to noise annoyance. With regard to sex, findings were less consistent. We also found that results in our studies might be biased due to selective participation, that noise sensitive individuals were likely to have a higher response rate and that inter-study comparison may be difficult since different annoyance scales can produce very different results. In conclusion, the health effects of noise are modified by noise source, co-exposures, environmental and socio-demographic factors (as well as personal traits) and research methodology. To develop better policies for residential noise environment, future research should focus on combined exposures and stressors as well as further explaining age differences and developing better ways to account for social class. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
supervisor
opponent
  • BSc, PhD van Kamp, Irene, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Road Traffic Noise, Annoyance, Myocardial Infarction, Hypertension, Sleep
in
Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral dissertation Series
volume
2014:75
pages
68 pages
publisher
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
defense location
Föreläsningssal 1, Centralblocket, Skånes Universitetssjukhus, Lund
defense date
2014-06-11 13:00
ISSN
1652-8220
ISBN
978-91-7619-004-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
78aa0cd7-997d-45e9-9ac4-3cdf4092fc22 (old id 4443085)
date added to LUP
2014-05-20 14:21:44
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:49
@phdthesis{78aa0cd7-997d-45e9-9ac4-3cdf4092fc22,
  abstract     = {Traffic noise causes annoyance and sleep disturbance and has been linked with several other adverse effects on life quality and health, including increased risk of hypertension and myocardial infarction. Conservative estimates assume that at least one million healthy life years are lost every year from traffic related noise in the western part of Europe. We know from earlier studies that the adverse effects of environmental noise may be modified by social, demographic and individual factors. However, there is a need to better evaluate exposure-response in susceptible groups. The aim of this thesis was to test a number of factors hypothesised to modify the association between road traffic noise, annoyance and cardiovascular disease. Paper I-III are cross-sectional, while paper IV is a cohort study. The four different study populations in this thesis were selected through stratified random sampling of men and women aged 18-80 years old in the county of Skåne and its major city Malmö in southern Sweden. Exposures of road traffic and railway noise as well as air pollution were modelled using geographic information system (GIS) for the survey participants’ residential addresses. Possible confounding and modifying factors were mainly drawn from survey responses while outcomes were based on both self-reporting and inpatient registers. We were not able to show a relation between current and medium-term noise exposure to road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction or ischemic heart disease in the general population. Air-pollution at low levels did not modify this effect. An association was however found between road traffic noise and hypertension in a cross-sectional study >60dB(A). We also found strong and positive relations between road traffic noise and annoyance. Railway noise was found to be less annoying at intermediate levels, but not >55dB(A). Access to quiet side had a protective effect and decreased the risk of annoyance, sleep and concentration problems equal to a 5dB(A) decrease in noise exposure. Generally middle-aged persons were found to be more susceptible to noise. Higher socioeconomic status and educational level were related to noise annoyance. With regard to sex, findings were less consistent. We also found that results in our studies might be biased due to selective participation, that noise sensitive individuals were likely to have a higher response rate and that inter-study comparison may be difficult since different annoyance scales can produce very different results. In conclusion, the health effects of noise are modified by noise source, co-exposures, environmental and socio-demographic factors (as well as personal traits) and research methodology. To develop better policies for residential noise environment, future research should focus on combined exposures and stressors as well as further explaining age differences and developing better ways to account for social class.},
  author       = {Bodin, Theo},
  isbn         = {978-91-7619-004-3},
  issn         = {1652-8220},
  keyword      = {Road Traffic Noise,Annoyance,Myocardial Infarction,Hypertension,Sleep},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {68},
  publisher    = {Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine},
  school       = {Lund University},
  series       = {Lund University, Faculty of Medicine Doctoral dissertation Series},
  title        = {Road Traffic Noise - Factors modifying its relation to annoyance and cardiovascular disease},
  volume       = {2014:75},
  year         = {2014},
}