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Multi-scale Measurement of (Amorphous) Polymer Deformation: Simultaneous X-ray Scattering, Digital Image Correlation and In-situ Loading

Engqvist, Jonas LU ; Hall, Stephen LU ; Wallin, Mathias LU ; Ristinmaa, Matti LU and Plivelic, Tomás LU (2014) In Experimental Mechanics 54(8). p.1373-1383
Abstract
This paper presents a method to investigate the behaviour of polymers on different scales during deformation using simultaneously collected synchrotron X-ray scattering, digital image correlation (DIC) and tensile loading. The method is demonstrated through experiments made on specimens of amorphous polycarbonate. Deformation is measured in-situ, simultaneously across different scales from the macroscopic deformation, measured using sensors on the tensile machine, to the full-field mesoscopic deformation, measured using DIC, down to the deformation of the nano-scale structure, studied using small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The DIC reveals highly inhomogeneous deformations that render conventional techniques for measuring... (More)
This paper presents a method to investigate the behaviour of polymers on different scales during deformation using simultaneously collected synchrotron X-ray scattering, digital image correlation (DIC) and tensile loading. The method is demonstrated through experiments made on specimens of amorphous polycarbonate. Deformation is measured in-situ, simultaneously across different scales from the macroscopic deformation, measured using sensors on the tensile machine, to the full-field mesoscopic deformation, measured using DIC, down to the deformation of the nano-scale structure, studied using small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The DIC reveals highly inhomogeneous deformations that render conventional techniques for measuring deformation, such as extensiometers, virtually useless. The X-ray scattering is measured in several spatial points during continuous loading giving the evolution of the microstructure with respect to both spatial location and load level. The spatial mapping of the scattering reveals characters that would not be observed when only measuring at the centre point or measuring on a large area of the specimen, e.g. wide beam SAXS/WAXS or small angle neutron scattering (SANS). With these data, the macroscopic and the mesoscopic deformation can be correlated to the behaviour of the microstructure providing relevant information when developing micro-mechanical based constitutive models. The experimental results shown here indicate a direct correlation between the major principal strain direction and the maximum anisotropy direction of the SAXS patterns. The current approach can be extended to any kind of polymeric materials or polymer-based nano-composites. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Digital image correlation, Small angle X-ray scattering, Wide angle X-ray scattering, In-situ loading, Polycarbonate
in
Experimental Mechanics
volume
54
issue
8
pages
1373 - 1383
publisher
Kluwer
external identifiers
  • wos:000341812900006
  • scopus:84907691154
ISSN
1741-2765
DOI
10.1007/s11340-014-9901-3
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
b2027761-5234-4a12-b130-2aca41ac5371 (old id 4457567)
date added to LUP
2014-08-15 15:42:11
date last changed
2017-01-01 03:25:11
@article{b2027761-5234-4a12-b130-2aca41ac5371,
  abstract     = {This paper presents a method to investigate the behaviour of polymers on different scales during deformation using simultaneously collected synchrotron X-ray scattering, digital image correlation (DIC) and tensile loading. The method is demonstrated through experiments made on specimens of amorphous polycarbonate. Deformation is measured in-situ, simultaneously across different scales from the macroscopic deformation, measured using sensors on the tensile machine, to the full-field mesoscopic deformation, measured using DIC, down to the deformation of the nano-scale structure, studied using small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The DIC reveals highly inhomogeneous deformations that render conventional techniques for measuring deformation, such as extensiometers, virtually useless. The X-ray scattering is measured in several spatial points during continuous loading giving the evolution of the microstructure with respect to both spatial location and load level. The spatial mapping of the scattering reveals characters that would not be observed when only measuring at the centre point or measuring on a large area of the specimen, e.g. wide beam SAXS/WAXS or small angle neutron scattering (SANS). With these data, the macroscopic and the mesoscopic deformation can be correlated to the behaviour of the microstructure providing relevant information when developing micro-mechanical based constitutive models. The experimental results shown here indicate a direct correlation between the major principal strain direction and the maximum anisotropy direction of the SAXS patterns. The current approach can be extended to any kind of polymeric materials or polymer-based nano-composites.},
  author       = {Engqvist, Jonas and Hall, Stephen and Wallin, Mathias and Ristinmaa, Matti and Plivelic, Tomás},
  issn         = {1741-2765},
  keyword      = {Digital image correlation,Small angle X-ray scattering,Wide angle X-ray scattering,In-situ loading,Polycarbonate},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1373--1383},
  publisher    = {Kluwer},
  series       = {Experimental Mechanics},
  title        = {Multi-scale Measurement of (Amorphous) Polymer Deformation: Simultaneous X-ray Scattering, Digital Image Correlation and In-situ Loading},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11340-014-9901-3},
  volume       = {54},
  year         = {2014},
}