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Life Cycle Assessment of Biofuels in Sweden

Börjesson, Pål LU ; Tufvesson, Linda LU and Lantz, Mikael LU (2010) In LUTFD2/TFEM--10/3061--SE + (1-88) 70.
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to carry out updated and developed life cycle assessments of biofuels produced and used in Sweden today. The focuses are on making the assessments as relevant and transparent as possible and to identify hot spots which have significant impacts on the environmental performance of the specific biofuel production chains. The study includes sensitivity analyses showing the impact on changed future conditions. The results should be seen as current and average environmental performance based on updated calculation methods. Thus individual systems developed by specific companies may have somewhat different performances. The biofuels analysed are ethanol from wheat, sugar beet and sugar cane (imported from Brazil), RME... (More)
The purpose of this study is to carry out updated and developed life cycle assessments of biofuels produced and used in Sweden today. The focuses are on making the assessments as relevant and transparent as possible and to identify hot spots which have significant impacts on the environmental performance of the specific biofuel production chains. The study includes sensitivity analyses showing the impact on changed future conditions. The results should be seen as current and average environmental performance based on updated calculation methods. Thus individual systems developed by specific companies may have somewhat different performances. The biofuels analysed are ethanol from wheat, sugar beet and sugar cane (imported from Brazil), RME from rapeseed, biogas from sugar beet, ley crops, maize and organic residues, such as municipal waste, food industry waste and liquid manure. The study also includes co-production of ethanol and biogas from wheat. Final use in both light and heavy duty vehicles, and related emissions, are assessed. Environmental impact categories considered are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical oxidants, particles and energy balances. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, e.g. energy input in various operations and processes, and biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from direct land use changes (LUC). The potential risk of indirect land use changes (ILUC) is also assessed. By-products are included by three different calculation methods, system expansion, energy allocation and economic allocation. The results are presented per MJ biofuel, but the alternative functional unit per hectare cropland is also used regarding the greenhouse gas performance of crop-based biofuels. Finally, estimations are carried out regarding the current environmental performance of the current various biofuel systems based on system expansion, recommended by the ISO-standardisation of LCA, and energy allocation, utilised in the standardisation of biofuels within the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED). (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Book/Report
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Biofuels, life cycle assessment, environmental aspects, Sweden
in
LUTFD2/TFEM--10/3061--SE + (1-88)
volume
70
pages
88 pages
publisher
Lund University. Department of Technology and Society. Environmental and Energy Systems Studies
ISSN
1102-3651
ISBN
9188360962
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
05ca9969-d7be-4785-b690-ee77f68383de (old id 4463139)
date added to LUP
2014-06-11 14:30:23
date last changed
2018-05-29 11:02:07
@techreport{05ca9969-d7be-4785-b690-ee77f68383de,
  abstract     = {The purpose of this study is to carry out updated and developed life cycle assessments of biofuels produced and used in Sweden today. The focuses are on making the assessments as relevant and transparent as possible and to identify hot spots which have significant impacts on the environmental performance of the specific biofuel production chains. The study includes sensitivity analyses showing the impact on changed future conditions. The results should be seen as current and average environmental performance based on updated calculation methods. Thus individual systems developed by specific companies may have somewhat different performances. The biofuels analysed are ethanol from wheat, sugar beet and sugar cane (imported from Brazil), RME from rapeseed, biogas from sugar beet, ley crops, maize and organic residues, such as municipal waste, food industry waste and liquid manure. The study also includes co-production of ethanol and biogas from wheat. Final use in both light and heavy duty vehicles, and related emissions, are assessed. Environmental impact categories considered are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical oxidants, particles and energy balances. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, e.g. energy input in various operations and processes, and biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from direct land use changes (LUC). The potential risk of indirect land use changes (ILUC) is also assessed. By-products are included by three different calculation methods, system expansion, energy allocation and economic allocation. The results are presented per MJ biofuel, but the alternative functional unit per hectare cropland is also used regarding the greenhouse gas performance of crop-based biofuels. Finally, estimations are carried out regarding the current environmental performance of the current various biofuel systems based on system expansion, recommended by the ISO-standardisation of LCA, and energy allocation, utilised in the standardisation of biofuels within the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED).},
  author       = {Börjesson, Pål and Tufvesson, Linda and Lantz, Mikael},
  institution  = {Lund University. Department of Technology and Society. Environmental and Energy Systems Studies},
  isbn         = {9188360962},
  issn         = {1102-3651},
  keyword      = {Biofuels,life cycle assessment,environmental aspects,Sweden},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {88},
  series       = {LUTFD2/TFEM--10/3061--SE + (1-88)},
  title        = {Life Cycle Assessment of Biofuels in Sweden},
  volume       = {70},
  year         = {2010},
}