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Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century

Carstensen, Jacob; Andersen, Jesper H.; Gustafsson, Bo G. and Conley, Daniel LU (2014) In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111(15). p.5628-5633
Abstract
Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea... (More)
Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
biogeochemistry, climate change
in
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
volume
111
issue
15
pages
5628 - 5633
publisher
National Acad Sciences
external identifiers
  • wos:000334288600050
  • scopus:84898792762
ISSN
1091-6490
DOI
10.1073/pnas.1323156111
project
BECC
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
12c8d816-3a48-4173-b8bd-0fad51ee16dd (old id 4488699)
date added to LUP
2014-06-23 13:46:33
date last changed
2017-11-12 03:16:16
@article{12c8d816-3a48-4173-b8bd-0fad51ee16dd,
  abstract     = {Deoxygenation is a global problem in coastal and open regions of the ocean, and has led to expanding areas of oxygen minimum zones and coastal hypoxia. The recent expansion of hypoxia in coastal ecosystems has been primarily attributed to global warming and enhanced nutrient input from land and atmosphere. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in the world is the Baltic Sea, where the relative importance of physical forcing versus eutrophication is still debated. We have analyzed water column oxygen and salinity profiles to reconstruct oxygen and stratification conditions over the last 115 y and compare the influence of both climate and anthropogenic forcing on hypoxia. We report a 10-fold increase of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and show that this is primarily linked to increased inputs of nutrients from land, although increased respiration from higher temperatures during the last two decades has contributed to worsening oxygen conditions. Although shifts in climate and physical circulation are important factors modulating the extent of hypoxia, further nutrient reductions in the Baltic Sea will be necessary to reduce the ecosystems impacts of deoxygenation.},
  author       = {Carstensen, Jacob and Andersen, Jesper H. and Gustafsson, Bo G. and Conley, Daniel},
  issn         = {1091-6490},
  keyword      = {biogeochemistry,climate change},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {15},
  pages        = {5628--5633},
  publisher    = {National Acad Sciences},
  series       = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences},
  title        = {Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1323156111},
  volume       = {111},
  year         = {2014},
}