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Hippocampal Lewy pathology and cholinergic dysfunction are associated with dementia in Parkinson's disease.

Hall, Helene LU ; Reyes, Stefanie; Landeck, Natalie LU ; Bye, Chris; Leanza, Giampiero LU ; Double, Kay; Thompson, Lachlan LU ; Halliday, Glenda and Kirik, Deniz LU (2014) In Brain 137(Jul 24). p.2493-2508
Abstract
The neuropathological substrate of dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease is still under debate, particularly in patients with insufficient alternate neuropathology for other degenerative dementias. In patients with pure Lewy body Parkinson's disease, previous post-mortem studies have shown that dopaminergic and cholinergic regulatory projection systems degenerate, but the exact pathways that may explain the development of dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease remain unclear. Studies in rodents suggest that both the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways may functionally interact to regulate certain aspects of cognition, however, whether such an interaction occurs in humans is still poorly... (More)
The neuropathological substrate of dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease is still under debate, particularly in patients with insufficient alternate neuropathology for other degenerative dementias. In patients with pure Lewy body Parkinson's disease, previous post-mortem studies have shown that dopaminergic and cholinergic regulatory projection systems degenerate, but the exact pathways that may explain the development of dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease remain unclear. Studies in rodents suggest that both the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways may functionally interact to regulate certain aspects of cognition, however, whether such an interaction occurs in humans is still poorly understood. In this study, we performed stereological analyses of the A9 and A10 dopaminergic neurons and Ch1, Ch2 and Ch4 cholinergic neurons located in the basal forebrain, along with an assessment of α-synuclein pathology in these regions and in the hippocampus of six demented and five non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease and five age-matched control individuals with no signs of neurological disease. Moreover, we measured choline acetyltransferase activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of eight demented and eight non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease, as well as in the same areas of eight age-matched controls. All patients with Parkinson's disease exhibited a similar 80-85% loss of pigmented A9 dopaminergic neurons, whereas patients with Parkinson's disease dementia presented an additional loss in the lateral part of A10 dopaminergic neurons as well as Ch4 nucleus basalis neurons. In contrast, medial A10 dopaminergic neurons and Ch1 and Ch2 cholinergic septal neurons were largely spared. Despite variable Ch4 cell loss, cortical but not hippocampal cholinergic activity was consistently reduced in all patients with Parkinson's disease, suggesting significant dysfunction in cortical cholinergic pathways before frank neuronal degeneration. Patients with Parkinson's disease dementia were differentiated by a significant reduction in hippocampal cholinergic activity, by a significant loss of non-pigmented lateral A10 dopaminergic neurons and Ch4 cholinergic neurons (30 and 55% cell loss, respectively, compared with neuronal preservation in control subjects), and by an increase in the severity of α-synuclein pathology in the basal forebrain and hippocampus. Overall, these results point to increasing α-synuclein deposition and hippocampal dysfunction in a setting of more widespread degeneration of cortical dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways as contributing to the dementia occurring in patients with pure Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, our findings support the concept that α-synuclein deposition is associated with significant neuronal dysfunction in the absence of frank neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
in
Brain
volume
137
issue
Jul 24
pages
2493 - 2508
publisher
Oxford University Press
external identifiers
  • pmid:25062696
  • wos:000342996000018
  • scopus:84906706633
ISSN
1460-2156
DOI
10.1093/brain/awu193
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
730fb03c-c46f-4638-8621-312082e473cb (old id 4581270)
alternative location
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25062696?dopt=Abstract
date added to LUP
2014-08-09 15:42:08
date last changed
2017-11-12 03:02:35
@article{730fb03c-c46f-4638-8621-312082e473cb,
  abstract     = {The neuropathological substrate of dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease is still under debate, particularly in patients with insufficient alternate neuropathology for other degenerative dementias. In patients with pure Lewy body Parkinson's disease, previous post-mortem studies have shown that dopaminergic and cholinergic regulatory projection systems degenerate, but the exact pathways that may explain the development of dementia in patients with Parkinson's disease remain unclear. Studies in rodents suggest that both the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways may functionally interact to regulate certain aspects of cognition, however, whether such an interaction occurs in humans is still poorly understood. In this study, we performed stereological analyses of the A9 and A10 dopaminergic neurons and Ch1, Ch2 and Ch4 cholinergic neurons located in the basal forebrain, along with an assessment of α-synuclein pathology in these regions and in the hippocampus of six demented and five non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease and five age-matched control individuals with no signs of neurological disease. Moreover, we measured choline acetyltransferase activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of eight demented and eight non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease, as well as in the same areas of eight age-matched controls. All patients with Parkinson's disease exhibited a similar 80-85% loss of pigmented A9 dopaminergic neurons, whereas patients with Parkinson's disease dementia presented an additional loss in the lateral part of A10 dopaminergic neurons as well as Ch4 nucleus basalis neurons. In contrast, medial A10 dopaminergic neurons and Ch1 and Ch2 cholinergic septal neurons were largely spared. Despite variable Ch4 cell loss, cortical but not hippocampal cholinergic activity was consistently reduced in all patients with Parkinson's disease, suggesting significant dysfunction in cortical cholinergic pathways before frank neuronal degeneration. Patients with Parkinson's disease dementia were differentiated by a significant reduction in hippocampal cholinergic activity, by a significant loss of non-pigmented lateral A10 dopaminergic neurons and Ch4 cholinergic neurons (30 and 55% cell loss, respectively, compared with neuronal preservation in control subjects), and by an increase in the severity of α-synuclein pathology in the basal forebrain and hippocampus. Overall, these results point to increasing α-synuclein deposition and hippocampal dysfunction in a setting of more widespread degeneration of cortical dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways as contributing to the dementia occurring in patients with pure Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, our findings support the concept that α-synuclein deposition is associated with significant neuronal dysfunction in the absence of frank neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease.},
  author       = {Hall, Helene and Reyes, Stefanie and Landeck, Natalie and Bye, Chris and Leanza, Giampiero and Double, Kay and Thompson, Lachlan and Halliday, Glenda and Kirik, Deniz},
  issn         = {1460-2156},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {Jul 24},
  pages        = {2493--2508},
  publisher    = {Oxford University Press},
  series       = {Brain},
  title        = {Hippocampal Lewy pathology and cholinergic dysfunction are associated with dementia in Parkinson's disease.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awu193},
  volume       = {137},
  year         = {2014},
}