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Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities

Hagenbjork-Gustafsson, Annika; Tornevi, Andreas; Andersson, Eva M.; Johannesson, Sandra; Bellander, Tom; Merritt, Anne-Sophie; Tinnerberg, Håkan LU ; Westberg, Flakan; Forsberg, Bertil and Sallsten, Gerd (2014) In Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 24(4). p.437-443
Abstract
Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 mu g/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 mu g/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 mu g/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1,mu g/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and... (More)
Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 mu g/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 mu g/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 mu g/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1,mu g/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1, 3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
3-butadiene, 1, personal exposure, benzene, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, mixed models
in
Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
volume
24
issue
4
pages
437 - 443
publisher
Nature Publishing Group
external identifiers
  • wos:000337651800013
  • scopus:84903143140
ISSN
1559-064X
DOI
10.1038/jes.2013.57
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
294acc2f-9f78-4c81-bc29-96fb362227a3 (old id 4609456)
date added to LUP
2014-09-01 07:42:40
date last changed
2017-01-01 05:46:08
@article{294acc2f-9f78-4c81-bc29-96fb362227a3,
  abstract     = {Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The measurements were performed among 40 inhabitants during seven consecutive days, in one urban area each year, during 2000-2008. The estimated population exposure levels were 1.95 mu g/m(3) for benzene, 0.56 mu g/m(3) for 1,3-butadiene, 19.4 mu g/m(3) for formaldehyde, and 14.1,mu g/m(3) for NO2. Statistical analysis using a mixed-effects model revealed that time spent in traffic and time outdoors contributed to benzene and 1,3- butadiene exposure. For benzene, refueling a car was an additional determinant influencing the exposure level. Smoking or environmental tobacco smoke were significant determinants of exposure to NO2, benzene, and 1, 3-butadiene. Those with a gas stove had higher NO2 exposure. Living in a single-family house increased the exposure to formaldehyde significantly. In a variance component model, the between-subject variance dominated for 1,3-butadiene and formaldehyde, whereas the between-city variance dominated for NO2. For benzene, the between-subject and between-cities variances were similar.},
  author       = {Hagenbjork-Gustafsson, Annika and Tornevi, Andreas and Andersson, Eva M. and Johannesson, Sandra and Bellander, Tom and Merritt, Anne-Sophie and Tinnerberg, Håkan and Westberg, Flakan and Forsberg, Bertil and Sallsten, Gerd},
  issn         = {1559-064X},
  keyword      = {3-butadiene,1,personal exposure,benzene,nitrogen dioxide,formaldehyde,mixed models},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {437--443},
  publisher    = {Nature Publishing Group},
  series       = {Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology},
  title        = {Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jes.2013.57},
  volume       = {24},
  year         = {2014},
}