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International Competition, Productivity and Regional Spillovers

Johansson, Helena LU (2002)
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen behandlar två områden. Dels kopplingen mellan import, konkurrens och produktivitetsutveckling i Sverige och inom EU, dels effekten av inrättandet av så kallade exportzoner i u-länder, det vill säga särskilda områden som omfattas av olika incitament för att locka utländska företag att etablera en exportorienterad verksamhet i landet. Exempelvis så kan tullfrihet för importerade insatsvaror råda. Exportzoner visar sig ha stimulerat export i flera, men inte alla, u-länder som använt sig av dem. Vidare så har inte bara exporten från zonerna i sig bidragit till en ökad total export, utan zonerna har också stimulerat exporten från företag utanför exportzonerna, åtminstone i Malaysia.... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Avhandlingen behandlar två områden. Dels kopplingen mellan import, konkurrens och produktivitetsutveckling i Sverige och inom EU, dels effekten av inrättandet av så kallade exportzoner i u-länder, det vill säga särskilda områden som omfattas av olika incitament för att locka utländska företag att etablera en exportorienterad verksamhet i landet. Exempelvis så kan tullfrihet för importerade insatsvaror råda. Exportzoner visar sig ha stimulerat export i flera, men inte alla, u-länder som använt sig av dem. Vidare så har inte bara exporten från zonerna i sig bidragit till en ökad total export, utan zonerna har också stimulerat exporten från företag utanför exportzonerna, åtminstone i Malaysia. Sveriges inträde i EU och genomförandet av den inre marknaden visar sig ha ökat konkurrensen generellt på den svenska inhemska marknaden, förutom i dryckes- och livsmedelsindustrin. Importkonkurrens i allmänhet visar sig också ha en positiv effekt på produktivitetsutvecklingen i Sverige, särskilt i industrier med stor teknologispridning mellan företagen. Slutligen så har import från andra EU-medlemmar en positiv effekt på produktivitetsutvecklingen inom EU, medan import från icke-medlemmar spelar mindre roll. (Less)
Abstract
This thesis addresses empirically the interplay among international trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) and domestic market conditions, and its impact on competition, growth, exports and technology diffusion. Chapter two considers the potential relation between regional integration and productivity growth for the case of the European Union (EU). It is found that imports from other members is positively associated with productivity growth, while no impact from non-member imports is encountered, even if only developed non-members are considered. Chapter three concerns the impact of import competition on productivity growth, with special attention to the role of technology dispersion among firms. Using Swedish firm and industry level data,... (More)
This thesis addresses empirically the interplay among international trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) and domestic market conditions, and its impact on competition, growth, exports and technology diffusion. Chapter two considers the potential relation between regional integration and productivity growth for the case of the European Union (EU). It is found that imports from other members is positively associated with productivity growth, while no impact from non-member imports is encountered, even if only developed non-members are considered. Chapter three concerns the impact of import competition on productivity growth, with special attention to the role of technology dispersion among firms. Using Swedish firm and industry level data, it is found that import competition triggers productivity growth in general, and that there is an additional impact in domestic industries with high technology dispersion among firms. Chapter four investigates whether the Single Market Program within the EU has had an impact on price-cost margins in Swedish industries previously protected by non-tariff barriers, so called sensitive industries. We find that average price-cost margins declined significantly after the implementation of the SMP in sensitive industries. A clear exception to this pattern is the food and beverage sector, a sector in which both sensitive and non-sensitive industries experienced a general increase in average price-cost margins over the time period. Chapter five discusses the idea that foreign-owned, export-oriented firms could have a positive impact on the export performance of local firms in the host country. A serious obstacle for potential exporters in developing countries is the lack of “export-know-how,” and foreign firms could stimulate local firms to begin exporting by showing them how to produce, market, sell and distribute manufactured goods on the world market. Since a major objective with EPZs is to attract export-oriented affiliates of foreign multinational enterprises, it is argued that host countries of EPZs can benefit from spillovers of know-how, i.e. a catalyst effect. Chapter six investigates empirically the quantitative impact of EPZs on developing countries’ export to the European Union. The study uses of the gravity model and addresses two questions: (i) whether EPZs have a positive impact on total host country exports, and (ii) if a significant catalyst effect is present. EPZs are found to have a positive impact on exports in several countries, but the effect varies across countries. For the case of Malaysia, a significant catalyst effect that is more or less constant over time is found. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Professor Kokko, Ari, The European Institute for Japanese Studies, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Internationell ekonomi, the European Union, International commerce, regional integration, export processing zones, Productivity, spillovers
pages
140 pages
publisher
Department of Economics, Lund Universtiy
defense location
EC3:210 Holger Crafoords Ekonomicentrum, Lund, Sweden
defense date
2003-01-18 10:15
ISSN
0460-0029
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
de0dde9c-d82d-4d34-98f5-63875a393bf8 (old id 465337)
date added to LUP
2007-09-27 11:35:48
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:56
@phdthesis{de0dde9c-d82d-4d34-98f5-63875a393bf8,
  abstract     = {This thesis addresses empirically the interplay among international trade, foreign direct investment (FDI) and domestic market conditions, and its impact on competition, growth, exports and technology diffusion. Chapter two considers the potential relation between regional integration and productivity growth for the case of the European Union (EU). It is found that imports from other members is positively associated with productivity growth, while no impact from non-member imports is encountered, even if only developed non-members are considered. Chapter three concerns the impact of import competition on productivity growth, with special attention to the role of technology dispersion among firms. Using Swedish firm and industry level data, it is found that import competition triggers productivity growth in general, and that there is an additional impact in domestic industries with high technology dispersion among firms. Chapter four investigates whether the Single Market Program within the EU has had an impact on price-cost margins in Swedish industries previously protected by non-tariff barriers, so called sensitive industries. We find that average price-cost margins declined significantly after the implementation of the SMP in sensitive industries. A clear exception to this pattern is the food and beverage sector, a sector in which both sensitive and non-sensitive industries experienced a general increase in average price-cost margins over the time period. Chapter five discusses the idea that foreign-owned, export-oriented firms could have a positive impact on the export performance of local firms in the host country. A serious obstacle for potential exporters in developing countries is the lack of “export-know-how,” and foreign firms could stimulate local firms to begin exporting by showing them how to produce, market, sell and distribute manufactured goods on the world market. Since a major objective with EPZs is to attract export-oriented affiliates of foreign multinational enterprises, it is argued that host countries of EPZs can benefit from spillovers of know-how, i.e. a catalyst effect. Chapter six investigates empirically the quantitative impact of EPZs on developing countries’ export to the European Union. The study uses of the gravity model and addresses two questions: (i) whether EPZs have a positive impact on total host country exports, and (ii) if a significant catalyst effect is present. EPZs are found to have a positive impact on exports in several countries, but the effect varies across countries. For the case of Malaysia, a significant catalyst effect that is more or less constant over time is found.},
  author       = {Johansson, Helena},
  issn         = {0460-0029},
  keyword      = {Internationell ekonomi,the European Union,International commerce,regional integration,export processing zones,Productivity,spillovers},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {140},
  publisher    = {Department of Economics, Lund Universtiy},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {International Competition, Productivity and Regional Spillovers},
  year         = {2002},
}