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CALLUM Linear Transmitter - Architecture and Circuit Analysis

Strandberg, Roland LU (2004) 50.
Abstract (Swedish)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Upprinnelsen till detta forskningsprojekt ligger i människans önskan att kommunicera. Elektronisk komminikation startade med telegrafen i början av 1800-talet och mot slutet av samma sekel uppfanns telefonen. Till en början var telefonnätet helt passivt, men i samband med upptäckten av elektronröret kopplades förstärkare in i nätet för att lösa problematiken med dämpningen i ledningarna. Samtidigt som förstärkarna effektivt motverkar dämpningen introducerar de distortion. Distortion är en förvrängning av signalen som i ytterligheten gör talet obegripligt. Lösningar har aktivt sökts som ger förstärkaren en distortionsfri (linjär) överföring samtidigt som dess verkningsgrad är hög.

... (More)
Popular Abstract in Swedish

Upprinnelsen till detta forskningsprojekt ligger i människans önskan att kommunicera. Elektronisk komminikation startade med telegrafen i början av 1800-talet och mot slutet av samma sekel uppfanns telefonen. Till en början var telefonnätet helt passivt, men i samband med upptäckten av elektronröret kopplades förstärkare in i nätet för att lösa problematiken med dämpningen i ledningarna. Samtidigt som förstärkarna effektivt motverkar dämpningen introducerar de distortion. Distortion är en förvrängning av signalen som i ytterligheten gör talet obegripligt. Lösningar har aktivt sökts som ger förstärkaren en distortionsfri (linjär) överföring samtidigt som dess verkningsgrad är hög.



I denna avhandling har speciellt linjära sändarakitekturer studerats. Dessa karaktäriseras av att 100% verkningsgrad är möjlig för alla insignalnivåer utan att ge avkall på möjligheten att erhålla en linjär överföring. CALLUM (Combined Analog Locked Loop Universal Modulator) är ett exempel på en linjär sändararkitektur som har studerats ingående vad det gäller dess lämplighet att använda som effektförstärkare för idag moderna modulationssätt, t.ex. 3pi/8-skiftad 8PSK som används i EDGE. Det har visat sig att CALLUM med dess återkoppling lämpar sig väl för förstärkning av modulerade signaler, som undviker nollgenomgångar, med bandbredder upp till ett par hundra kHz. (Less)
Abstract
This doctoral dissertation presents a study of linear radio transmitters based on the combined analog locked loop universal modulator (CALLUM) approach. Linear architectures such as CALLUM are very attractive for power-efficient operations, since they have no fundamental limitations prohibiting a 100% efficiency for all envelope levels, without sacrificing the potential of a linear transmission. This issue is becoming increasingly important in modern communication standards, where the information content is present not only in the signal phase, but in its amplitude as well. Such modulation schemes, while improving the data rate for a given signal bandwidth, pose tough demands on the linearity of the transmitter. As the power amplifier (PA)... (More)
This doctoral dissertation presents a study of linear radio transmitters based on the combined analog locked loop universal modulator (CALLUM) approach. Linear architectures such as CALLUM are very attractive for power-efficient operations, since they have no fundamental limitations prohibiting a 100% efficiency for all envelope levels, without sacrificing the potential of a linear transmission. This issue is becoming increasingly important in modern communication standards, where the information content is present not only in the signal phase, but in its amplitude as well. Such modulation schemes, while improving the data rate for a given signal bandwidth, pose tough demands on the linearity of the transmitter. As the power amplifier (PA) in the transmitter handles the largest signals and is the main power consumer in the radio, sufficient linearity should be achieved in conjunction with a high power efficiency of the PA, especially if the equipment is battery operated, as is the in case of mobile applications.



In this work, three different CALLUM architectures (i.e., CALLUM 1, CALLUM 1lin, and CALLUM 2) are studied in terms of loop gain, bandwidth, stability, and frequency compensation. A simplified baseband model of a general CALLUM is presented for efficient simulation of the system, and to gain knowledge about performance differences between the CALLUM derivatives. The investigated CALLUM architectures make use of Cartesian feedback, as it provides better matching between the I and Q signal paths than polar feedback. From baseband simulations with different signal component generator (SCG) implementations, the spectral performance of CALLUM 1 and CALLUM 1lin for an EDGE modulated signal is significantly better than that of CALLUM 2, for a given maximal loop gain. It can be concluded that the radical simplifications leading to CALLUM 2 have severe effects on the spectral properties of the output signal, while the actual implementation of the SCG becomes much simpler than for example CALLUM 1. The effect of propagation delay in the feedback loop is also included in the model, and indeed this delay appears to be the limiting factor in the achievable closed-loop signal bandwidth. A lag-lead frequency compensation network is used to trade bandwidth for increased insensitivity to time delays. The frequency compensation is quite efficient for all CALLUM versions studied when they operate on a 3pi/8-shifted 8PSK, as acceptable delays may in this case become much larger without jeopardizing the stability. It is worth noting that CALLUM 1lin performs very well in terms of maximum acceptable time delay for a certain standard.



Implementations of the circuits for the CALLUM 2 architecture are presented together with simulation results of the fundamental blocks. A differential analog SCG realizing the control equations for CALLUM 2, and a variable-gain amplifier (VGA) were simulated together with other functional blocks to form a complete baseband-modeled CALLUM 2 transmitter. From the simulated spectral performances, the SCG and VGA implementations proved to be appropriate for an EDGE-modulated signal. (Less)
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
opponent
  • Prof Rahkonen, Timo, University of Oulu, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Electronics laboratory, Oulu, FINLAND
organization
publishing date
type
Thesis
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Telekommunikationsteknik, Telecommunication engineering, loop time delay, modulation negative feedback, spectral emissions, baseband model, CALLUM, Linear transmitter architecture, power amplifier linearization
volume
50
pages
262 pages
publisher
Department of Electroscience, Lund University
defense location
Room E:1406, E-building (Ole Römers väg 3), Lund Institute of Technology, Lund
defense date
2004-12-17 10:15
ISSN
1402-8662
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
c088b17a-2671-4234-9010-59ab7c56d307 (old id 467669)
date added to LUP
2007-09-10 14:36:00
date last changed
2016-09-19 08:44:59
@phdthesis{c088b17a-2671-4234-9010-59ab7c56d307,
  abstract     = {This doctoral dissertation presents a study of linear radio transmitters based on the combined analog locked loop universal modulator (CALLUM) approach. Linear architectures such as CALLUM are very attractive for power-efficient operations, since they have no fundamental limitations prohibiting a 100% efficiency for all envelope levels, without sacrificing the potential of a linear transmission. This issue is becoming increasingly important in modern communication standards, where the information content is present not only in the signal phase, but in its amplitude as well. Such modulation schemes, while improving the data rate for a given signal bandwidth, pose tough demands on the linearity of the transmitter. As the power amplifier (PA) in the transmitter handles the largest signals and is the main power consumer in the radio, sufficient linearity should be achieved in conjunction with a high power efficiency of the PA, especially if the equipment is battery operated, as is the in case of mobile applications.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
In this work, three different CALLUM architectures (i.e., CALLUM 1, CALLUM 1lin, and CALLUM 2) are studied in terms of loop gain, bandwidth, stability, and frequency compensation. A simplified baseband model of a general CALLUM is presented for efficient simulation of the system, and to gain knowledge about performance differences between the CALLUM derivatives. The investigated CALLUM architectures make use of Cartesian feedback, as it provides better matching between the I and Q signal paths than polar feedback. From baseband simulations with different signal component generator (SCG) implementations, the spectral performance of CALLUM 1 and CALLUM 1lin for an EDGE modulated signal is significantly better than that of CALLUM 2, for a given maximal loop gain. It can be concluded that the radical simplifications leading to CALLUM 2 have severe effects on the spectral properties of the output signal, while the actual implementation of the SCG becomes much simpler than for example CALLUM 1. The effect of propagation delay in the feedback loop is also included in the model, and indeed this delay appears to be the limiting factor in the achievable closed-loop signal bandwidth. A lag-lead frequency compensation network is used to trade bandwidth for increased insensitivity to time delays. The frequency compensation is quite efficient for all CALLUM versions studied when they operate on a 3pi/8-shifted 8PSK, as acceptable delays may in this case become much larger without jeopardizing the stability. It is worth noting that CALLUM 1lin performs very well in terms of maximum acceptable time delay for a certain standard.<br/><br>
<br/><br>
Implementations of the circuits for the CALLUM 2 architecture are presented together with simulation results of the fundamental blocks. A differential analog SCG realizing the control equations for CALLUM 2, and a variable-gain amplifier (VGA) were simulated together with other functional blocks to form a complete baseband-modeled CALLUM 2 transmitter. From the simulated spectral performances, the SCG and VGA implementations proved to be appropriate for an EDGE-modulated signal.},
  author       = {Strandberg, Roland},
  issn         = {1402-8662},
  keyword      = {Telekommunikationsteknik,Telecommunication engineering,loop time delay,modulation negative feedback,spectral emissions,baseband model,CALLUM,Linear transmitter architecture,power amplifier linearization},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {262},
  publisher    = {Department of Electroscience, Lund University},
  school       = {Lund University},
  title        = {CALLUM Linear Transmitter - Architecture and Circuit Analysis},
  volume       = {50},
  year         = {2004},
}