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A mycorrhizal fungus grows on biochar and captures phosphorus from its surfaces

Hammer, Edith LU ; Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Jakobsen, Iver; Olsson, Pål Axel LU ; Stipp, Susan L. S. and Rillig, Matthias C. (2014) In Soil Biology & Biochemistry 77. p.252-260
Abstract
Biochar application to soils has potential to simultaneously improve soil fertility and store carbon to aid climate change mitigation. While many studies have shown positive effects on plant yields, much less is known about the synergies between biochar and plant growth promoting microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi. We present the first evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can use biochar as a physical growth matrix and nutrient source. We used monoxenic cultures of the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis in symbiosis with carrot roots. Using scanning electron microscopy we observed that AM fungal hyphae grow on and into two contrasting types of biochar particles, strongly attaching to inner and outer surfaces. Loading a... (More)
Biochar application to soils has potential to simultaneously improve soil fertility and store carbon to aid climate change mitigation. While many studies have shown positive effects on plant yields, much less is known about the synergies between biochar and plant growth promoting microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi. We present the first evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can use biochar as a physical growth matrix and nutrient source. We used monoxenic cultures of the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis in symbiosis with carrot roots. Using scanning electron microscopy we observed that AM fungal hyphae grow on and into two contrasting types of biochar particles, strongly attaching to inner and outer surfaces. Loading a nutrient-poor biochar surface with nutrients stimulated hyphal colonization. We labeled biochar surfaces with P-33 radiotracer and found that hyphal contact to the biochar surfaces permitted uptake of P-33 and its subsequent translocation to the associated host roots. Direct access of fungal hyphae to biochar surfaces resulted in six times more P-33 translocation to the host roots than in systems where a mesh prevented hyphal contact with the biochar. We conclude that AM fungal hyphae access microsites within biochar, that are too small for most plant roots to enter (<10 mu m), and can hence mediate plant phosphorus uptake from the biochar. Thus, combined management of biochar and AM fungi could contribute to sustainable soil and climate management by providing both a carbon-stable nutrient reservoir and a symbiont that facilitates nutrient uptake from it. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (Less)
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author
organization
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Adsorption, Charcoal, Fertilizer, Glomus intraradices, Phosphate, Slow, release
in
Soil Biology & Biochemistry
volume
77
pages
252 - 260
publisher
Elsevier
external identifiers
  • wos:000341556600028
  • scopus:84904053306
ISSN
0038-0717
DOI
10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.06.012
project
BECC
language
English
LU publication?
yes
id
d17a5c70-6a56-4301-9c68-f69647331fc6 (old id 4713136)
date added to LUP
2014-11-06 11:43:41
date last changed
2017-11-12 03:34:23
@article{d17a5c70-6a56-4301-9c68-f69647331fc6,
  abstract     = {Biochar application to soils has potential to simultaneously improve soil fertility and store carbon to aid climate change mitigation. While many studies have shown positive effects on plant yields, much less is known about the synergies between biochar and plant growth promoting microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi. We present the first evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can use biochar as a physical growth matrix and nutrient source. We used monoxenic cultures of the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis in symbiosis with carrot roots. Using scanning electron microscopy we observed that AM fungal hyphae grow on and into two contrasting types of biochar particles, strongly attaching to inner and outer surfaces. Loading a nutrient-poor biochar surface with nutrients stimulated hyphal colonization. We labeled biochar surfaces with P-33 radiotracer and found that hyphal contact to the biochar surfaces permitted uptake of P-33 and its subsequent translocation to the associated host roots. Direct access of fungal hyphae to biochar surfaces resulted in six times more P-33 translocation to the host roots than in systems where a mesh prevented hyphal contact with the biochar. We conclude that AM fungal hyphae access microsites within biochar, that are too small for most plant roots to enter (&lt;10 mu m), and can hence mediate plant phosphorus uptake from the biochar. Thus, combined management of biochar and AM fungi could contribute to sustainable soil and climate management by providing both a carbon-stable nutrient reservoir and a symbiont that facilitates nutrient uptake from it. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Hammer, Edith and Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna and Jakobsen, Iver and Olsson, Pål Axel and Stipp, Susan L. S. and Rillig, Matthias C.},
  issn         = {0038-0717},
  keyword      = {Adsorption,Charcoal,Fertilizer,Glomus intraradices,Phosphate,Slow,release},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {252--260},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Soil Biology & Biochemistry},
  title        = {A mycorrhizal fungus grows on biochar and captures phosphorus from its surfaces},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.06.012},
  volume       = {77},
  year         = {2014},
}