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The emergence of mechanoregulated endochondral ossification in evolution

Khayyeri, Hanifeh LU and Prendergast, Patrick J (2012) In Journal of Biomechanics 46(4). p.731-737
Abstract
The differentiation of skeletal tissue phenotypes is partly regulated by mechanical forces. This mechanoregulatory aspect of tissue differentiation has been the subject of many experimental and computational investigations. However, little is known about what factors promoted the emergence of mechanoregulated tissue differentiation in evolution, even though mechanoregulated tissue differentiation, for example during development or healing of adult bone, is crucial for vertebrate phylogeny. In this paper, we use a computational framework to test the hypothesis that the emergence of mechanosensitive genes that trigger endochondral ossification in evolution will stabilise in the population and create a variable mechanoregulated response, if... (More)
The differentiation of skeletal tissue phenotypes is partly regulated by mechanical forces. This mechanoregulatory aspect of tissue differentiation has been the subject of many experimental and computational investigations. However, little is known about what factors promoted the emergence of mechanoregulated tissue differentiation in evolution, even though mechanoregulated tissue differentiation, for example during development or healing of adult bone, is crucial for vertebrate phylogeny. In this paper, we use a computational framework to test the hypothesis that the emergence of mechanosensitive genes that trigger endochondral ossification in evolution will stabilise in the population and create a variable mechanoregulated response, if the endochondral ossification process enhances fitness for survival. The model combines an evolutionary algorithm that considers genetic change with a mechanoregulated fracture healing model in which the fitness of animals in a population is determined by their ability to heal their bones. The simulations show that, with the emergence of mechanosensitive genes through evolution enabling skeletal cells to modulate their synthetic activities, novel differentiation pathways such as endochondral ossification could have emerged, which when favoured by natural selection is maintained in a population. Furthermore, the model predicts that evolutionary forces do not lead to a single optimal mechanoregulated response but that the capacity of endochondral ossification exists with variability in a population. The simulations correspond with many existing findings about the mechanosensitivity of skeletal tissues in current animal populations, therefore indicating that this kind of multi-level models could be used in future population based simulations of tissue differentiation. (Less)
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author
publishing date
type
Contribution to journal
publication status
published
subject
keywords
Bone evolution, Endochondral ossification, Mechanobiology, Evolution simulation, Mechanoregulation
in
Journal of Biomechanics
volume
46
issue
4
pages
731 - 737
publisher
Elsevier
ISSN
1873-2380
language
English
LU publication?
no
id
4573cc53-69d7-44c4-909f-4ef29ad3abbe (old id 4778793)
alternative location
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021929012006823
date added to LUP
2014-11-14 12:26:13
date last changed
2016-06-29 09:15:57
@article{4573cc53-69d7-44c4-909f-4ef29ad3abbe,
  abstract     = {The differentiation of skeletal tissue phenotypes is partly regulated by mechanical forces. This mechanoregulatory aspect of tissue differentiation has been the subject of many experimental and computational investigations. However, little is known about what factors promoted the emergence of mechanoregulated tissue differentiation in evolution, even though mechanoregulated tissue differentiation, for example during development or healing of adult bone, is crucial for vertebrate phylogeny. In this paper, we use a computational framework to test the hypothesis that the emergence of mechanosensitive genes that trigger endochondral ossification in evolution will stabilise in the population and create a variable mechanoregulated response, if the endochondral ossification process enhances fitness for survival. The model combines an evolutionary algorithm that considers genetic change with a mechanoregulated fracture healing model in which the fitness of animals in a population is determined by their ability to heal their bones. The simulations show that, with the emergence of mechanosensitive genes through evolution enabling skeletal cells to modulate their synthetic activities, novel differentiation pathways such as endochondral ossification could have emerged, which when favoured by natural selection is maintained in a population. Furthermore, the model predicts that evolutionary forces do not lead to a single optimal mechanoregulated response but that the capacity of endochondral ossification exists with variability in a population. The simulations correspond with many existing findings about the mechanosensitivity of skeletal tissues in current animal populations, therefore indicating that this kind of multi-level models could be used in future population based simulations of tissue differentiation.},
  author       = {Khayyeri, Hanifeh and Prendergast, Patrick J},
  issn         = {1873-2380},
  keyword      = {Bone evolution,Endochondral ossification,Mechanobiology,Evolution simulation,Mechanoregulation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {731--737},
  publisher    = {Elsevier},
  series       = {Journal of Biomechanics},
  title        = {The emergence of mechanoregulated endochondral ossification in evolution},
  volume       = {46},
  year         = {2012},
}